FTP Server ftp.cc.uoc.gr

October 5, 2008 INSTALL 8 NetBSD

NAME

INSTALL - Installation procedure for NetBSD/amiga.

CONTENTS

                                                              

About this Document............................................2 What is NetBSD?................................................2 Changes Between The NetBSD 4.0 release and 4.0.1 update........3 Security Advisories Fixes...................................3 Other Security Fixes........................................3 Networking..................................................4 Libraries...................................................4 Drivers.....................................................4 Miscellaneous...............................................4 Platforms specific..........................................5 Changes Between The NetBSD 3.0 and 4.0 Releases................5 Networking..................................................5 File systems................................................6 Drivers.....................................................6 Platforms...................................................8 Kernel subsystems...........................................9 Security...................................................10 Userland...................................................10 Components removed from NetBSD.............................12 The Future of NetBSD..........................................13 Sources of NetBSD.............................................13 NetBSD 4.0.1 Release Contents.................................13 NetBSD/amiga subdirectory structure........................15 Miniroot file system.......................................15 Binary distribution sets...................................15 NetBSD/amiga System Requirements and Supported Devices........17 Supported devices..........................................17 Getting the NetBSD System on to Useful Media..................19 Preparing your System for NetBSD installation.................21 Preparing your hard disk with HDToolBox....................21 Transferring the miniroot file system......................23 Installing the NetBSD System..................................24 Booting....................................................24 Once your kernel boots.....................................24 Post installation steps.......................................27 Upgrading a previously-installed NetBSD System................29 Once your kernel boots.....................................30 Compatibility Issues With Previous NetBSD Releases............31 Issues affecting an upgrade from NetBSD 2.1 and older......31 Issues affecting an upgrade from NetBSD 3.x releases.......32 Issues with GDB 6.5...........................................33 Using online NetBSD documentation.............................33 Administrivia.................................................34 Thanks go to..................................................34 We are........................................................35 Legal Mumbo-Jumbo.............................................41 The End.......................................................47

DESCRIPTION

About this Document

This document describes the installation procedure for NetBSD 4.0.1 on the amiga platform. It is available in four different formats titled INSTALL.ext, where .ext is one of .ps, .html, .more, or .txt:

.ps
PostScript.

.html
Standard Internet HTML.

.more
The enhanced text format used on UNIX-like systems by the more(1) and less(1) pager utility programs. This is the format in which the on-line man pages are generally presented.

.txt
Plain old ASCII.

You are reading the HTML version.

What is NetBSD?

The NetBSD Operating System is a fully functional Open Source UNIX-like operating system derived from the University of California, Berkeley Networking Release 2 (Net/2), 4.4BSD-Lite, and 4.4BSD-Lite2 sources. NetBSD runs on fifty four different system architectures (ports), featuring seventeen machine architectures across fifteen distinct CPU families, and is being ported to more. The NetBSD 4.0.1 release contains complete binary releases for many different system architectures. (A few ports are not fully supported at this time and are thus not part of the binary distribution. Please see the NetBSD web site at http://www.NetBSD.org/ for information on them.)

NetBSD is a completely integrated system. In addition to its highly portable, high performance kernel, NetBSD features a complete set of user utilities, compilers for several languages, the X Window System, firewall software and numerous other tools, all accompanied by full source code.

NetBSD is a creation of the members of the Internet community. Without the unique cooperation and coordination the net makes possible, it's likely that NetBSD wouldn't exist.

Changes Between The NetBSD 4.0 release and 4.0.1 update

The NetBSD 4.0.1 update is the first security/critical update of the NetBSD 4.0 release branch. This represents a selected subset of fixes deemed critical in nature for stability or security reasons.

These fixes will also appear in future releases (NetBSD 4.1), together with other less-critical fixes and feature enhancements.

The complete list of changes can be found in the CHANGES-4.0.1: ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-4.0.1/CHANGES-4.0.1 file in the top level directory of the NetBSD 4.0.1 release tree.

Security Advisories Fixes

Note:
NetBSD-SA2008-007 and advisories prior to NetBSD-SA2008-004 don't affect NetBSD 4.0.
Other Security Fixes
Networking
Libraries
Drivers
Miscellaneous
Platforms specific

Changes Between The NetBSD 3.0 and 4.0 Releases

The NetBSD 4.0 release provides numerous significant functional enhancements, including support for many new devices, integration of hundreds of bug fixes, new and updated kernel subsystems, and many user-land enhancements. The result of these improvements is a stable operating system fit for production use that rivals most commercially available systems.

It is impossible to completely summarize more than a year of development that went into the NetBSD 4.0 release. The complete list of changes can be found in the CHANGES: ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-4.0/CHANGES and CHANGES-4.0: ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-4.0/CHANGES-4.0 files in the top level directory of the NetBSD 4.0 release tree. Some highlights include:

Networking
File systems
Drivers
Platforms
Kernel subsystems

Kernel interfaces have continued to be refined, and more subsystems and device drivers are shared among the different ports. You can look for this trend to continue.

Security
Userland

Besides this list, there have also been innumerable bug fixes and other miscellaneous enhancements of course.

Components removed from NetBSD

In this release of NetBSD, some software components known from previous releases were removed from the system. In some cases those were components that are not useful anymore or their utility does not justify maintenance overhead. Other components were not working properly and there was lack of interest in fixing them.

The Future of NetBSD

The NetBSD Foundation has been incorporated as a non-profit organization. Its purpose is to encourage, foster and promote the free exchange of computer software, namely the NetBSD Operating System. The foundation will allow for many things to be handled more smoothly than could be done with our previous informal organization. In particular, it provides the framework to deal with other parties that wish to become involved in the NetBSD Project.

The NetBSD Foundation will help improve the quality of NetBSD by:

We hope to support even more hardware in the future, and we have a rather large number of other ideas about what can be done to improve NetBSD.

We intend to continue our current practice of making the NetBSD-current development source available on a daily basis.

We intend to integrate free, positive changes from whatever sources submit them, providing that they are well thought-out and increase the usability of the system.

Above all, we hope to create a stable and accessible system, and to be responsive to the needs and desires of NetBSD users, because it is for and because of them that NetBSD exists.

Sources of NetBSD

Refer to http://www.NetBSD.org/mirrors/.

NetBSD 4.0.1 Release Contents

The root directory of the NetBSD 4.0.1 release is organized as follows:

.../NetBSD-4.0.1/

CHANGES
Changes between NetBSD 3.0 and branching 4.0.

CHANGES-4.0
Changes since NetBSD 4.0 was branched.

CHANGES-4.0.1
Changes between NetBSD 4.0 and 4.0.1.

CHANGES.prev
Changes in earlier NetBSD releases.

LAST_MINUTE
Last minute changes.

MIRRORS
A list of sites that mirror the NetBSD 4.0.1 distribution.

README.files
README describing the distribution's contents.

TODO
NetBSD's todo list (also somewhat incomplete and out of date).

patches/
Post-release source code patches.

source/
Source distribution sets; see below.

In addition to the files and directories listed above, there is one directory per architecture, for each of the architectures for which NetBSD 4.0.1 has a binary distribution.

The source distribution sets can be found in subdirectories of the source subdirectory of the distribution tree. They contain the complete sources to the system. The source distribution sets are as follows:

gnusrc
This set contains the ``gnu'' sources, including the source for the compiler, assembler, groff, and the other GNU utilities in the binary distribution sets.
95 MB gzipped, 484 MB uncompressed

sharesrc
This set contains the ``share'' sources, which include the sources for the man pages not associated with any particular program; the sources for the typesettable document set; the dictionaries; and more.
6 MB gzipped, 25 MB uncompressed

src
This set contains all of the base NetBSD 4.0.1 sources which are not in gnusrc, sharesrc, or syssrc.
45 MB gzipped, 214 MB uncompressed

syssrc
This set contains the sources to the NetBSD 4.0.1 kernel for all architectures; config(1); and dbsym(8).
33 MB gzipped, 165 MB uncompressed

xsrc
This set contains the sources to the X Window System.
95 MB gzipped, 502 MB uncompressed

All the above source sets are located in the source/sets subdirectory of the distribution tree.

The source sets are distributed as compressed tar files. Except for the pkgsrc set, which is traditionally unpacked into /usr/pkgsrc, all sets may be unpacked into /usr/src with the command:
       # cd / ; tar -zxpf set_name.tgz

In each of the source distribution set directories, there are files which contain the checksums of the files in the directory:

BSDSUM
Historic BSD checksums for the various files in that directory, in the format produced by the command:
cksum -o 1 file.

CKSUM
POSIX checksums for the various files in that directory, in the format produced by the command:
cksum file.

MD5
MD5 digests for the various files in that directory, in the format produced by the command:
cksum -a MD5 file.

SHA512
SHA512 digests for the various files in that directory, in the format produced by the command:
cksum -a SHA512 file.

SYSVSUM
Historic AT&T System V UNIX checksums for the various files in that directory, in the format produced by the command:
cksum -o 2 file.

The SHA512 digest is the safest checksum, followed by the MD5 digest, and finally the POSIX checksum. The other two checksums are provided only to ensure that the widest possible range of systems can check the integrity of the release files.

NetBSD/amiga subdirectory structure
The amiga-specific portion of the NetBSD 4.0.1 release is found in the amiga subdirectory of the distribution: .../NetBSD-4.0.1/amiga/. It contains the following files and directories:

INSTALL.html
INSTALL.ps
INSTALL.txt
INSTALL.more
Installation notes in various file formats, including this file. The .more file contains underlined text using the more(1) conventions for indicating italic and bold display.
binary/
kernel/
netbsd-GENERIC.gz
A gzipped NetBSD kernel containing code for everything supported in this release.
sets/
amiga binary distribution sets; see below.
installation/
floppy/
amiga boot and installation floppies; see below.
miniroot/
amiga miniroot file system image; see below.
misc/
Miscellaneous amiga installation utilities; see installation section, below.
Miniroot file system
The Amiga now uses a single miniroot file system for both an initial installation and for an upgrade. A gzipped version is available, for easier downloading. (The gzipped version has the .gz extension added to their names.)

miniroot.fs
This file contains a BSD root file system setup to help you install the rest of NetBSD or to upgrade a previous version of NetBSD. This includes formatting and mounting your / (root) and /usr partitions and getting ready to extract (and possibly first fetching) the distribution sets. There is enough on this file system to allow you to make a SLIP or PPP connection, configure an Ethernet, mount an NFS file system or ftp. You can also load distribution sets from a SCSI tape or from one of your existing AmigaDOS partitions.
Binary distribution sets
The NetBSD amiga binary distribution sets contain the binaries which comprise the NetBSD 4.0.1 release for the amiga. The binary distribution sets can be found in the amiga/binary/sets subdirectory of the NetBSD 4.0.1 distribution tree, and are as follows:

base
The NetBSD 4.0.1 amiga base binary distribution. You must install this distribution set. It contains the base NetBSD utilities that are necessary for the system to run and be minimally functional. It includes shared library support, and excludes everything described below.
24 MB gzipped, 68 MB uncompressed

comp
Things needed for compiling programs. This set includes the system include files (/usr/include) and the various system libraries (except the shared libraries, which are included as part of the base set). This set also includes the manual pages for all of the utilities it contains, as well as the system call and library manual pages.
23 MB gzipped, 83 MB uncompressed

etc
This distribution set contains the system configuration files that reside in /etc and in several other places. This set must be installed if you are installing the system from scratch, but should not be used if you are upgrading.
1 MB gzipped, 1 MB uncompressed

games
This set includes the games and their manual pages.
3 MB gzipped, 8 MB uncompressed

kern-GENERIC
This set contains a NetBSD/amiga 4.0.1 GENERIC kernel, named /netbsd. You must install this distribution set.
2 MB gzipped, 4 MB uncompressed

man
This set includes all of the manual pages for the binaries and other software contained in the base set. Note that it does not include any of the manual pages that are included in the other sets.
8 MB gzipped, 33 MB uncompressed

misc
This set includes the (rather large) system dictionaries, the typesettable document set, and other files from /usr/share.
4 MB gzipped, 12 MB uncompressed

text
This set includes NetBSD's text processing tools, including groff(1), all related programs, and their manual pages.
3 MB gzipped, 11 MB uncompressed

NetBSD maintains its own set of sources for the X Window System in order to assure tight integration and compatibility. These sources are based on XFree86, and tightly track XFree86 releases. They are currently equivalent to XFree86 4.5.0. Binary sets for the X Window System are distributed with NetBSD. The sets are:

xbase
The basic files needed for a complete X client environment. This does not include the X servers.
6 MB gzipped, 18 MB uncompressed

xcomp
The extra libraries and include files needed to compile X source code.
11 MB gzipped, 39 MB uncompressed

xfont
Fonts needed by the X server and by X clients.
31 MB gzipped, 39 MB uncompressed

xetc
Configuration files for X which could be locally modified.
0.03 MB gzipped, 0.17 MB uncompressed

xserver
The X server.
5 MB gzipped, 11 MB uncompressed

The amiga binary distribution sets are distributed as gzipped tar files named with the extension .tgz, e.g. base.tgz.

The instructions given for extracting the source sets work equally well for the binary sets, but it is worth noting that if you use that method, the filenames stored in the sets are relative and therefore the files are extracted below the current directory. Therefore, if you want to extract the binaries into your system, i.e. replace the system binaries with them, you have to run the tar -xpf command from the root directory ( / ) of your system. This utility is used only in a Traditional method installation.

Note:
Each directory in the amiga binary distribution also has its own checksum files, just as the source distribution does.

NetBSD/amiga System Requirements and Supported Devices

NetBSD4.0.1 runs on any Amiga that has a 68020 or better CPU with some form of MMU, and on 68060 DraCos.

NetBSD does not, and will never, run on run on A1000, A500, A600, A1200, A2000, A4000/EC030, CDTV and CD32 systems that are not enhanced by a CPU board.

For 68020 and 68030 systems, a FPU is recommended but not required for the system utilities. 68LC040, 68040V and 68LC060 systems don't work correctly at the moment.

The minimal configuration requires 6 MB of RAM (not including CHIPMEM!) and about 75 MB of disk space. To install the entire system requires much more disk space, and to run X or compile the system, more RAM is recommended. (6 MB of RAM will actually allow you to compile, however it won't be speedy. X really isn't usable on a 6 MB system.)

Here is a table of recommended HD partition sizes for a full install:

Partition Suggested + X Needed + X
/ (root) 25 MB 25 MB 20 MB 20 MB
/usr 245 MB 270 MB 120 MB 145 MB
/var 20 MB 20 MB 5 MB 5 MB
swap 2*RAM below 32 MB, then up to you

Anything else is up to you!

As you may note the recommended size of /usr is 125 MB greater than needed. This is to leave room for a kernel source and compile tree as you will probably want to compile your own kernel. GENERIC is large and bulky to accommodate all people. For example, most people's machines have an FPU, so you do not need the bulky FPU_EMULATE option.

Preconfigured or precompiled packages are installed below /usr/pkg by default. You should either make /usr larger (if you intend to install a lot of them), make /usr/pkg an additional partition, use the -p option to pkg_add to install them in a different place, or link /usr/pkg to a different place.

If you only have less than 8 MB of fast memory, you should make your swap partition larger, as your system will be doing much more swapping. Especially: do not place it onto a old small (and normally slow) disk!

Supported devices

If its not on the above lists, there is no support for it in this release. Especially (but this is an incomplete list), there are no drivers for: Blizzard III SCSI option, Ferret SCSI, Oktagon SCSI.

Getting the NetBSD System on to Useful Media

Note that if you are installing or upgrading from a writable media, the media can be write-protected if you wish. These systems mount a root image from inside the kernel, and will not need to write to the media. If you booted from a floppy, the floppy disk may be removed from the drive after the system has booted.

Installation is supported from several media types, including:

The steps necessary to prepare the distribution sets for installation depend upon which installation medium you choose. The steps for the various media are outlined below.

AmigaDOS partition
To install NetBSD from an AmigaDOS partition, you need to get the NetBSD distribution sets you wish to install on your system on to an AmigaDOS partition.

Note where you place the files as you will need this later.

Once you have done this, you can proceed to the next step in the installation process, preparing your hard disk.

CD-ROM / DVD
To install NetBSD from a CD-ROM drive, make sure it is a SCSI CD-ROM on a SCSI bus currently supported by NetBSD (refer to the supported hardware list) or an ATAPI CD-ROM connected to the A1200 or A4000 internal IDE connector. If it is a SCSI CD-ROM on a non-supported SCSI bus like Blizzard-3 SCSI or Apollo SCSI you must first copy the distribution sets to an AmigaDOS partition as described above.

If your SCSI CD-ROM is connected to a supported SCSI host adapter, or it is an ATAPI cd-rom connected to the A1200/A4000 internal IDE connector, simply put the CD into the drive before installation.

Find out where the distribution set files are on the CD-ROM or DVD. Likely locations are binary/sets and amiga/binary/sets.

Proceed to the instruction on installation.

MS-DOS floppy
NetBSD doesn't include split sets to keep the distribution size down. They can be created on a separate machine using the split(1) command, running e.g. split -b 235k base.tgz base. to split the base.tgz file from amiga/binary/sets into files named base.aa, base.ab, and so on. Repeat this for all set_name.tgz files, splitting them into set_name.xx files. Count the number of set_name.xx files that make up the distribution sets you want to install or upgrade. You will need one sixth that number of 1.44 MB floppies.

Format all of the floppies with MS-DOS. Do not make any of them bootable MS-DOS floppies, i.e. don't use format /s to format them. (If the floppies are bootable, then the MS-DOS system files that make them bootable will take up some space, and you won't be able to fit the distribution set parts on the disks.) If you're using floppies that are formatted for MS-DOS by their manufacturers, they probably aren't bootable, and you can use them out of the box.

Place all of the set_name.xx files on the MS-DOS disks.

Once you have the files on MS-DOS disks, you can proceed to the next step in the installation or upgrade process. If you're installing NetBSD from scratch, go to the section on preparing your hard disk, below. If you're upgrading an existing installation, go directly to the section on upgrading.

FTP
The preparations for this installation/upgrade method are easy; all you need to do is make sure that there's an FTP site from which you can retrieve the NetBSD distribution when you're about to install or upgrade. If you don't have DHCP available on your network, you will need to know the numeric IP address of that site, and, if it's not on a network directly connected to the machine on which you're installing or upgrading NetBSD, you need to know the numeric IP address of the router closest to the NetBSD machine. Finally, you need to know the numeric IP address of the NetBSD machine itself. If you don't have access to a functioning nameserver during installation, the IPv4 address of ftp.NetBSD.org is 204.152.190.13 and the IPv6 address is 2001:4f8:4:7:230:48ff:fe31:43f2 (as of December, 2007).

Once you have this information, you can proceed to the next step in the installation or upgrade process. If you're installing NetBSD from scratch, go to the section on preparing your hard disk, below. If you're upgrading an existing installation, go directly to the section on upgrading.

Note:
This method of installation is recommended for those familiar with using BSD network configuration and management commands. If you aren't, this documentation should help, but is not intended to be all-encompassing.

NFS
Place the NetBSD distribution sets you wish to install into a directory on an NFS server, and make that directory mountable by the machine on which you are installing or upgrading NetBSD. This will probably require modifying the /etc/exports file on the NFS server and resetting its mount daemon (mountd). (Both of these actions will probably require superuser privileges on the server.)

You need to know the numeric IP address of the NFS server, and, if you don't have DHCP available on your network and the server is not on a network directly connected to the machine on which you're installing or upgrading NetBSD, you need to know the numeric IP address of the router closest to the NetBSD machine. Finally, you need to know the numeric IP address of the NetBSD machine itself.

Once the NFS server is set up properly and you have the information mentioned above, you can proceed to the next step in the installation or upgrade process. If you're installing NetBSD from scratch, go to the section on preparing your hard disk, below. If you're upgrading an existing installation, go directly to the section on upgrading.

Note:
This method of installation is recommended for those already familiar with using BSD network configuration and management commands. If you aren't, this documentation should help, but is not intended to be all-encompassing.

Tape
To install NetBSD from a tape, you need to make a tape that contains the distribution set files, in `tar' format.

If you're making the tape on a UNIX-like system, the easiest way to do so is probably something like:

       # tar -cf tape_device dist_directories

where tape_device is the name of the tape device that describes the tape drive you're using; possibly /dev/rst0, or something similar, but it will vary from system to system. (If you can't figure it out, ask your system administrator.) In the above example, dist_directories are the distribution sets' directories, for the distribution sets you wish to place on the tape. For instance, to put the kern-GENERIC, base, and etc distributions on tape (in order to do the absolute minimum installation to a new disk), you would do the following:


       # cd .../NetBSD-4.0.1
       # cd amiga/binary
       # tar -cf tape_device kern-GENERIC base etc

Note:
You still need to fill in tape_device in the example.

Once you have the files on the tape, you can proceed to the next step in the installation or upgrade process. If you're installing NetBSD from scratch, go to the section on preparing your hard disk, below. If you're upgrading an existing installation, go directly to the section on upgrading.


Preparing your System for NetBSD installation

You will need an AmigaDOS hard drive prep tool to prepare your hard drives for use with NetBSD/amiga. HDToolBox is provided with the system software and on floppy installation disks since Release 2.0 of AmigaDOS, so we will provide instructions for its use.

Note that NetBSD can't currently be installed on disks with a sector size other than 512 bytes (e.g., ``640 MB'' 90mm M-O media). You can, however, mount ADOSFS partitions on such M-O's.

Preparing your hard disk with HDToolBox

A full explanation of HDToolBox can be found with your AmigaDOS manuals and is beyond the scope of this document.

The first time you partition a drive, you need to set its drive type so that you have working geometry parameters. To do this you enter the ``Change drive type'' menu, and either use ``read parameters from drive'' or set them manually.

Note you will be modifying your HD's. If you mess something up here you could lose everything on all the drives that you configure. It is therefore advised that you:

  1. Write down your current configurations. Do this by examining each partition on the drive and the drives parameters (from Change drive type.)

  2. Back up the partitions you are keeping.

What you need to do is partition your drives; creating at least root, swap and /usr partitions and possibly at least one more for /usr/local if you have the space.

This should be done as the HDToolBox manual describes. One thing to note is that if you are not using a Commodore controller you will need to specify the device your SCSI controller uses, e.g. if you have a Warp Engine you would:

From cli
       hdtoolbox warpdrive.device

From wb
Set the tooltype


       SCSI_DEVICE_NAME=warpdrive.device

The important things you need to do above and beyond normal partitioning includes (from Partition Drive section):

  1. Marking all NetBSD partitions as non-bootable, with two exceptions: the root partition (/), if you want to boot NetBSD directly, or the swap partition, if you want to boot the installation miniroot directly.

  2. Changing the file system parameters of the partitions to NetBSD ones. This must be done from the partitioning section and ``Advanced options'' must be enabled.

To make the needed changes:

  1. Click the ``Adv. Options'' button
  2. Click the ``Change file system'' button
  3. Choose ``Custom File System''
  4. Turn off ``Automount'' if on.
  5. Set the dostype to one of these three choices:
    root partition  : 0x4e425207                                                   (NBR\007)
    swap partition  : 0x4e425301                                                   (NBS\001)
    other partitions: 0x4e425507                                                   (NBU\007)
    

    Here `other' refers to other partitions you will format for reading and writing under NetBSD (e.g. /usr)

    Make sure you press RETURN to enter this value as some versions of HDToolBox will forget your entry if you don't.

  6. Turn custom boot code off
  7. Set Reserved Blocks start and end to 0.
  8. Click Ok.

On the root (/) (and, for installation, swap) partition, set instead this:

  1. Turn custom boot code on
  2. Set Reserved Blocks start and end to 0.
  3. Set Number of Custom Boot Blocks to 16.
  4. Set Automount This Partition on
  5. Click Ok.

    Mask and maxtransfer are not used with NetBSD.

Caveat:
The swap (for installation) and the root partition (if you plan to use the bootblocks) must be within the first 4 gigabytes of the disk! The reason for the former is that xstreamtodev uses trackdisk.device compatible I/O-calls, the reason for the latter is that the bootblock gets a 32bit partition offset from the operating system.

Once this is done NetBSD/amiga will be able to recognize your disks and which partitions it should use.

Transferring the miniroot file system
The NetBSD/amiga installation or upgrade now uses a miniroot file system which is installed on the partition used by NetBSD for swapping. This removes the requirement of using a floppy disk for the file system used by the installation or upgrade process. It also allows more utilities to be present on the file system than would be available when using an 880 KB floppy disk.

Once the hard disk has been prepared for NetBSD, the miniroot file system (miniroot.fs) is transferred to the swap partition configured during the hard disk prep (or the existing swap partition in the case of an upgrade). The xstreamtodev utility provided in the amiga/installation/misc directory can be used on AmigaDOS to transfer the file system for either a new installation or an upgrade. The file system can also be transferred on an existing NetBSD system for an update by using dd. This should only be done after booting NetBSD into single-user state. It may also be possible to shutdown to single-user, providing that the single-user state processes are not using the swap partition.

On AmigaDOS, the command:


       xstreamtodev --input=miniroot.fs --rdb-name=<swap partition>

where <swap partition> is the name you gave to the NetBSD partition to be used for swapping. If xstreamtodev is unable to determine the SCSI driver device name or the unit number of the specified partition, you may also need to include the option


       --device=<driver.name>

and/or


       --unit=<SCSI unit number>

To transfer the miniroot using NetBSD, you should be booted up in single user state on the current NetBSD system, or use the shutdown now command to shutdown to single-user state. Then copy the miniroot using dd:


       dd if=miniroot.fs of=/dev/rsd0b

where /dev/rsd0b should be the device path of the swap partition your system is configured to use. Once the file is copied, reboot back to AmigaDOS to boot the upgrade kernel.

Caveat:
Once you have started installation, if you abort it and want to retry you must reinstall the miniroot.fs on the swap partition.

Installing the NetBSD System

Installing NetBSD is a relatively complex process, but, if you have this document in hand and are careful to read and remember the information which is presented to you by the install program, it shouldn't be too much trouble.

Before you begin, you must have already prepared your hard disk as detailed in the section on preparing your system for install.

The following is a walk-through of the steps necessary to get NetBSD installed on your hard disk. If you wish to stop the installation, you may press CONTROL-C at any prompt, but if you do, you'll have to begin again from scratch.

Transfer the miniroot file system onto the hard disk partition used by NetBSD for swapping, as described in the "Preparing your System for NetBSD Installation" section above.

Booting
NetBSD, with boot blocks installed

[This description is for V40 (OS 3.1) ROMs. For older ROMs, there might be small differences. Check your AmigaDOS documentation to learn about the exact procedure.] Using bootblocks may not work on some systems, and may require a mountable file system on others.

Reboot your machine, holding down both mouse buttons if you have a 2-button mouse, the outer mouse buttons if you have a 3-button mouse. On the DraCo, press the left mouse button instead, when the boot screen prompts you for it.

From the boot menu, select Boot Options. Select the swap partition with the miniroot, and then ok. Select Boot now. The machine will boot the bootblock, which will prompt your for a command line. You have a few seconds time to change the default. Entering an empty line will accept the default.

The bootblock uses command lines of the form:
file[ options]
where file is the kernel file name on the partition where the boot block is on, and [options] may contain the following:

If you have an AGA machine, and your monitor will handle the dblNTSC mode, you may include the -A option to enable the dblNTSC display mode.

If your machine has a fragmented physical memory space, as, e.g., DraCo machines, you should add the -n2 option to enable the use of all memory segments.

Once your kernel boots
You should see the screen clear and some information about your system as the kernel configures the hardware. Note which hard disk device(s) are configured (sd0, sd1, etc.) Then you will be prompted for a root device. At this time type sd0b, where sd0 is the device which contains the swap partition you created during the hard disk preparation. When prompted for a dump device, answer `none' for the install (normally, you would tell it one of the swap devices). When prompted for the root file system type, confirm `generic', which will auto-detect it.

If the system should hang after entering the root device, try again with

       netbsd -I ff -b

This disables synchronous transfer on all SCSI devices on the first bus.

The system should continue to boot. For now ignore ``WARNING'' messages about bad dates in clocks, and a warning about /etc/rc not existing. Eventually you will be be asked to enter the pathname of the shell, just press RETURN. After a short while, you will be asked to select the type of your keyboard. After you have entered a valid response here, the system asks you if you want to install or upgrade your system. Since you are reading the install section, `i' would be the proper response here...

The installer starts with a nice welcome messages. Read this message carefully, it also informs you of the risks involved in continuing! If you still want to go on, type `y'. The installer now continues by trying to figure out your disk configuration. When it is done, you will be prompted to select a root device from the list of disks it has found.

You should know at this point that the disks are not numbered according to their SCSI-ID! The NetBSD kernel numbers the SCSI drives (and other devices on the SCSI bus) sequentially as it finds them. The drive with the lowest SCSI-ID will be called sd0, the next one sd1, etc. Also, any ATAPI disk drives (e.g. ZIP) will be configured as ``SCSI'' drives, too, and will be configured before any `real' SCSI drives if connected to the Amiga internal port on A4000/A1200 (if any are present). Real IDE drives will be configured as wd0, wd1, etc.

The installer will offer you to look at the NetBSD disk label of the disks at this point. You should do this, to find out what partition letters the NetBSD kernel assigned to the partitions you created, and as a check whether the disk number you are going to use is right.

you are now at the point of no return. If you confirm that you want to install NetBSD, your hard drive will be modified, and perhaps its contents scrambled at the whim of the install program. Type Control-C now if you don't want this.

At this time, you will need to tell the installer which partition will be associated with the different file systems. Normally, you'll want to add a partition for /usr, at least.

Caveat:
Do not use the rsdNc or sdNc partitions for anything! They are for access to the whole disk only and do not correspond to any Amiga partition!

The install program will now make the file systems you specified. There should be only one error per file system in this section of the installation. It will look like this:

newfs: ioctl (WDINFO): Invalid argument
newfs: /dev/rsd0a: can't rewrite disk label

If there are any others, restart from the beginning of the installation process. This error is ok as the Amiga does not write disklabels currently. You should expect this error whenever using newfs.

The install will now ask you want to configure any network information. It ill ask for the machine's host name, domain name, and other network configuration information.

Since the network configuration might have lead to additional (nfs) file system entries, you get another chance to modify your fstab.

You are finally at the point where some real data will be put on your freshly made file systems. Select the device type you wish to install from and off you go....

Some notes:

Next you will be asked to specify the timezone. Just select the timezone you are in. The installer will make the correct setup on your root file system (/). After the timezone-link is installed, the installer will proceed by creating the device nodes on your root file system under /dev.

Be patient, this will take a while...

Next, the installer will copy your keymap settings to the new system. After this, it will copy the kernel from the installation miniroot to the newly installed / upgraded system. If the installed system already has a kernel, it will ask you for confirmation.

kern.tgz distribution set, this is an old kernel, and you should answer "y" to install a working (although restricted) INSTALL kernel.

If you did install the kern.tgz kernel, you normally should answer "n".

Finally, the installer ask you if you want to install the bootblock code on your root disk. This is a matter of personal choice and can also be done from a running NetBSD system. See the installboot(8) manual page about how to do this.

Once the installer is done, halt the system with the halt command (wait for halted to be displayed) and reboot. Then again boot NetBSD this time selecting the root partition (/) from the boot menu, and tell it to boot


       netbsd -s

You need to do your final tweaks now. First mount your file systems like so:


       mount -av

Your system is now complete but not completely configured; you should adjust the /etc/sendmail.cf file as necessary to suit your site. You should also examine and adjust the settings in /etc/rc.conf. You can use vi(1) or ed(1) to edit the files. If you installed the man pages you can type man vi or man ed for instructions on how to use these somewhat non-intuitive editors.

Once you are done with the rest of configuration unmount your file systems and halt your system, then reboot:


       # cd /
       # umount -av
       # halt

Finally you can now boot your system and it will be completely functional:


       netbsd

When it boots off of the hard drive, you will have a complete NetBSD system! Congratulations! (You really deserve them!!!)

Post installation steps

Once you've got the operating system running, there are a few things you need to do in order to bring the system into a properly configured state, with the most important ones described below.

  1. Configuring /etc/rc.conf

    If you or the installation software haven't done any configuration of /etc/rc.conf (sysinst usually will), the system will drop you into single user mode on first reboot with the message

           /etc/rc.conf is not configured. Multiuser boot aborted.

    and with the root file system (/) mounted read-only. When the system asks you to choose a shell, simply press RETURN to get to a /bin/sh prompt. If you are asked for a terminal type, respond with vt220 (or whatever is appropriate for your terminal type) and press RETURN. You may need to type one of the following commands to get your delete key to work properly, depending on your keyboard:
           # stty erase '^h'
           # stty erase '^?'
    At this point, you need to configure at least one file in the /etc directory. You will need to mount your root file system read/write with:
           # /sbin/mount -u -w /
    Change to the /etc directory and take a look at the /etc/rc.conf file. Modify it to your tastes, making sure that you set rc_configured=YES so that your changes will be enabled and a multi-user boot can proceed. Default values for the various programs can be found in /etc/defaults/rc.conf, where some in-line documentation may be found. More complete documentation can be found in rc.conf(5).

    If your /usr directory is on a separate partition and you do not know how to use ed, you will have to mount your /usr partition to gain access to ex or vi. Do the following:


           # mount /usr
           # export TERM=vt220

    If you have /var on a separate partition, you need to repeat that step for it. After that, you can edit /etc/rc.conf with vi(1). When you have finished, type exit at the prompt to leave the single-user shell and continue with the multi-user boot.

    Other values that need to be set in /etc/rc.conf for a networked environment are hostname and possibly defaultroute, furthermore add an ifconfig_int for your <int> network interface, along the lines of


           ifconfig_de0="inet 123.45.67.89 netmask 255.255.255.0"

    or, if you have myname.my.dom in /etc/hosts:


           ifconfig_de0="inet myname.my.dom netmask 255.255.255.0"

    To enable proper hostname resolution, you will also want to add an /etc/resolv.conf file or (if you are feeling a little more adventurous) run named(8). See resolv.conf(5) or named(8) for more information. Instead of manually configuring network and naming service, DHCP can be used by setting dhclient=YES in /etc/rc.conf.

    Other files in /etc that may require modification or setting up include /etc/mailer.conf, /etc/nsswitch.conf, and /etc/wscons.conf.

  2. Logging in

    After reboot, you can log in as root at the login prompt. Unless you've set a password in sysinst, there is no initial password. If you're using the machine in a networked environment, you should create an account for yourself (see below) and protect it and the ``root'' account with good passwords. By default, root login from the network is disabled (even via ssh(1)). One way to become root over the network is to log in as a different user that belongs to group ``wheel'' (see group(5)) and use su(1) to become root.

    Unless you have connected an unusual terminal device as the console you can just press RETURN when it prompts for Terminal type? [...].

  3. Adding accounts

    Use the useradd(8) command to add accounts to your system. Do not edit /etc/passwd directly! See vipw(8) and pwd_mkdb(8) if you want to edit the password database.

  4. The X Window System

    If you have installed the X Window System, look at the files in /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/doc for information.

    Don't forget to add /usr/X11R6/bin to your path in your shell's dot file so that you have access to the X binaries.

  5. Installing third party packages

    If you wish to install any of the software freely available for UNIX-like systems you are strongly advised to first check the NetBSD package system. This automatically handles any changes necessary to make the software run on NetBSD, retrieval and installation of any other packages on which the software may depend, and simplifies installation (and deinstallation), both from source and precompiled binaries.

    • More information on the package system is at http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/software/packages.html

    • A list of available packages suitable for browsing is at ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/packages/pkgsrc/README.html

    • Precompiled binaries can be found at ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/packages/NetBSD/ usually in the amiga/4.0/All subdir. You can install them with the following commands under sh(1):

      # PKG_PATH=ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/packages/NetBSD/amiga/4.0/All
      # export PKG_PATH
      # pkg_add -v tcsh
      # pkg_add -v bash
      # pkg_add -v perl
      # pkg_add -v apache
      # pkg_add -v kde
      # pkg_add -v firefox
      ...
      

      If you are using csh(1) then replace the first two lines with the following:

      # setenv PKG_PATH ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/packages/NetBSD/amiga/4.0/All
      ...
      

      Note:
      Some mirror sites don't mirror /pub/pkgsrc directory. If you would like to use such mirrors, you could also try the /pub/NetBSD/packages/current-packages/NetBSD/amiga/4.0/All directory which may have the same contents.

      The above commands will install the Tenex-csh and Bourne Again shell, the Perl programming language, Apache web server, KDE desktop environment and the Firefox web browser as well as all the packages they depend on.

      Note:
      In some case the pkg_add(1) command will complain about a version mismatch of packages with a message like the following:
             Warning: package `foo' was built for a different version of the OS:
             NetBSD/i386 4.0 (pkg) vs. NetBSD/i386 4.0.1 (this host),
      This warning would be harmless if the formal major release numbers are same between the pkg and your host. Please refer ``the NetBSD release glossary and graphs'': http://www.NetBSD.org/releases/release-map.html for details of the release numbering scheme of NetBSD.

    • Package sources for compiling packages on your own can be obtained by retrieving the file ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/packages/pkgsrc.tar.gz They are typically extracted into /usr/pkgsrc (though other locations work fine), with the commands:


             # mkdir /usr/pkgsrc
             # cd /usr/pkgsrc
             # tar -zxpf pkgsrc.tar.gz

      After extracting, see the README and doc/pkgsrc.txt files in the extraction directory (e.g. /usr/pkgsrc/README) for more information.

  6. Misc

    • Edit /etc/mail/aliases to forward root mail to the right place. Don't forget to run newaliases(1) afterwards.

    • The /etc/postfix/main.cf file will almost definitely need to be adjusted. If you prefer a different MTA, then install it using the NetBSD package system or by hand and adjust /etc/mailer.conf.

    • Edit /etc/rc.local to run any local daemons you use.

    • Many of the /etc files are documented in section 5 of the manual; so just invoking


             # man 5 filename

      is likely to give you more information on these files.


Upgrading a previously-installed NetBSD System

The upgrade to NetBSD4.0.1 is a binary upgrade; it can be quite difficult to advance to a later version by recompiling from source due primarily to interdependencies in the various components.

To do the upgrade, you must have the NetBSD kernel on AmigaDOS and you must transfer the miniroot file system miniroot.fs onto the swap partition of the NetBSD hard disk. You must also have at least the base binary distribution set available, so that you can upgrade with it, using one of the upgrade methods described above. Finally, you must have sufficient disk space available to install the new binaries. Since the old binaries are being overwritten in place, you only need space for the new binaries, which weren't previously on the system. If you have a few megabytes free on each of your / (root) and /usr partitions, you should have enough space.

Since upgrading involves replacing the kernel, and most of the system binaries, it has the potential to cause data loss. You are strongly advised to BACK UP ANY IMPORTANT DATA ON YOUR DISK, whether on the NetBSD partition or on another operating system's partition, before beginning the upgrade process.

To upgrade your system, follow the following instructions:

Transfer the miniroot file system onto the hard disk partition used by NetBSD for swapping, as described in the "Preparing your System for NetBSD Installation" section above.

Now boot up NetBSD, with boot blocks installed

Note:
This description is for V40 (OS 3.1) ROMs. For older ROMs, there might be small differences. Check your AmigaDOS documentation to learn about the exact procedure. Booting using bootblocks doesn't work at all on some systems, and may require a mountable file system on others.

Reboot your machine, holding down both mouse buttons if you have a 2-button mouse, the outer mouse buttons if you have a 3-button mouse. On the DraCo, press the left mouse button instead, when the boot screen prompts you for it.

From the boot menu, select Boot Options. Select the swap partition with the miniroot, and then ok. Select Boot now. The machine will boot the bootblock, which will prompt your for a command line. You have a few seconds time to change the default. Entering an empty line will accept the default.

The bootblock uses command lines of the form:
file[ options]
where file is the kernel file name on the partition where the boot block is on, and options may contain the same as described in the INSTALL section.

For installing, use        netbsd -b

If you machine has a split memory space, like, e.g., DraCo machines, use this instead:


       netbsd -bn2

Once your kernel boots
You should see the screen clear and some information about your system as the kernel configures the hardware. Note which hard disk device is configured that contains your root (/) and swap partitions. When prompted for the root device, type sd0b (replacing `0' with the disk number that NetBSD used for your root/swap device). When prompted for a dump device, answer `none' for the upgrade. (For a normal boot, you would tell it one of the swap devices). When prompted for the root file system type, confirm `generic', which will auto-detect it.

You will be presented with some information about the upgrade process and a warning message, and will be asked if you wish to proceed with the upgrade process. If you answer negatively, the upgrade process will stop, and your disk will not be modified. If you answer affirmatively, the upgrade process will begin, and your disk will be modified. You may press CONTROL-C to stop the upgrade process at any time. However, if you press it at an inopportune moment, your system may be left in an inconsistent (and possibly unusable) state.

You will now be greeted and reminded of the fact that this is a potential dangerous procedure and that you should not upgrade the etc set.

When you decide to proceed, you will be prompted to enter your root disk. After you've done this, it will be checked automatically to make sure that the file system is in a sane state before making any modifications. After this is done, you will be asked if you want to configure your network.

You are now allowed to edit your fstab. Normally you don't have to. Note that the upgrade-kit uses its own copy of the fstab. Whatever you do here won't affect your actual fstab. After you are satisfied with your fstab, the upgrade-kit will check all file systems mentioned in it. When they're ok, they will be mounted.

You will now be asked if your sets are stored on a normally mounted file system. You should answer `y' to this question if you have the sets stored on a file system that was present in the fstab. The actions you should take for the set extraction are pretty logical (we think).

After you have extracted the sets, the upgrade kit will proceed with setting the timezone and installing the kernel and bootcode. This is all exactly the same as described in the installation section.

Your system has now been upgraded to NetBSD4.0.1.

After a new kernel has been copied to your hard disk, your machine is a complete NetBSD4.0.1 system. However, that doesn't mean that you're finished with the upgrade process. There are several things that you should do, or might have to do, to insure that the system works properly.

You will probably want to get the etc distribution, extract it, and compare its contents with those in your /etc directory. You will probably want to replace some of your system configuration files, or incorporate some of the changes in the new versions into yours.

You will want to delete old binaries that were part of the version of NetBSD that you upgraded from and have since been removed from the NetBSD distribution. If upgrading from a NetBSD version older than 1.0, you might also want to recompile any locally-built binaries, to take advantage of the shared libraries. (Note that any new binaries that you build will be dynamically linked, and therefore take advantage of the shared libraries, by default. For information on how to make statically linked binaries, see the cc(1) and ld(1) manual pages.)

Compatibility Issues With Previous NetBSD Releases

Users upgrading from previous versions of NetBSD may wish to bear the following problems and compatibility issues in mind when upgrading to NetBSD 4.0.1.

N.B. when using sysinst for upgrading, it will automatically invoke

postinstall fix
and thus all issues that are fixed by postinstall by default (see below) will be handled.
Issues affecting an upgrade from NetBSD 2.1 and older releases.
See the section below on upgrading from NetBSD 3.x as well.

It is very important that you populate the directory /etc/pam.d with appropriate configuration files for Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM) because you will not be able to login any more otherwise. Using postinstall as described below will take care of this. Please refer to http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/guide/en/chap-pam.html for documentation about PAM.

The following issues can generally be resolved by running postinstall with the etc set :

postinstall -s /path/to/etc.tgz check
postinstall -s /path/to/etc.tgz fix

Issues fixed by postinstall:

The following issues need to be resolved manually:

Issues affecting an upgrade from NetBSD 3.x releases.

The following issues can generally be resolved by running postinstall with the etc set :

postinstall -s /path/to/etc.tgz check
postinstall -s /path/to/etc.tgz fix

Issues fixed by postinstall:

The following issues need to be resolved manually:

Issues with GDB 6.5

Some architectures (arm, i386, powerpc and sparc64) have switched to a newer gdb version (6.5) in this release. Unfortunately support for debugging programs using the SA (scheduler activation) based thread library, is incomplete in this gdb version. Furthermore kernel crashdumps can not be debugged due to a missing identification in the kernel binaries.

Both issues have been addressed on the wrstuden-fixsa branch, but did not make it into the NetBSD release. Both will be fixed in the next patch release.

Using online NetBSD documentation

Documentation is available if you first install the manual distribution set. Traditionally, the ``man pages'' (documentation) are denoted by `name(section)'. Some examples of this are

The section numbers group the topics into several categories, but three are of primary interest: user commands are in section 1, file formats are in section 5, and administrative information is in section 8.

The man command is used to view the documentation on a topic, and is started by entering man[ section] topic. The brackets [] around the section should not be entered, but rather indicate that the section is optional. If you don't ask for a particular section, the topic with the lowest numbered section name will be displayed. For instance, after logging in, enter


       # man passwd

to read the documentation for passwd(1). To view the documentation for passwd(5), enter


       # man 5 passwd

instead.

If you are unsure of what man page you are looking for, enter


       # apropos subject-word

where subject-word is your topic of interest; a list of possibly related man pages will be displayed.

Administrivia

If you've got something to say, do so! We'd like your input. There are various mailing lists available via the mailing list server at majordomo@NetBSD.org. To get help on using the mailing list server, send mail to that address with an empty body, and it will reply with instructions.

There are various mailing lists set up to deal with comments and questions about this release. Please send comments to: netbsd-comments@NetBSD.org.

To report bugs, use the send-pr(1) command shipped with NetBSD, and fill in as much information about the problem as you can. Good bug reports include lots of details. Additionally, bug reports can be sent by mail to: netbsd-bugs@NetBSD.org.

Use of send-pr(1) is encouraged, however, because bugs reported with it are entered into the NetBSD bugs database, and thus can't slip through the cracks.

There are also port-specific mailing lists, to discuss aspects of each port of NetBSD. Use majordomo to find their addresses, or visit http://www.NetBSD.org/mailinglists/. If you're interested in doing a serious amount of work on a specific port, you probably should contact the `owner' of that port (listed below).

If you'd like to help with this effort, and have an idea as to how you could be useful, send us mail or subscribe to: netbsd-users@NetBSD.org.

As a favor, please avoid mailing huge documents or files to these mailing lists. Instead, put the material you would have sent up for FTP or WWW somewhere, then mail the appropriate list about it, or, if you'd rather not do that, mail the list saying you'll send the data to those who want it.

Thanks go to

We are...

(in alphabetical order)


The NetBSD core group:
Alistair Crooksagc@NetBSD.org
Quentin Garniercube@NetBSD.org
Matt Thomasmatt@NetBSD.org
YAMAMOTO Takashiyamt@NetBSD.org
Christos Zoulaschristos@NetBSD.org

The portmasters (and their ports):
Erik Berlscyber@NetBSD.org cobalt
Manuel Bouyerbouyer@NetBSD.org xen
Simon Burgesimonb@NetBSD.org evbmips
Simon Burgesimonb@NetBSD.org pmax
Simon Burgesimonb@NetBSD.org sbmips
Julian Colemanjdc@NetBSD.org atari
Marcus Comstedtmarcus@NetBSD.org dreamcast
Andrew Doranad@NetBSD.org amd64
Andrew Doranad@NetBSD.org i386
Matthias Drochnerdrochner@NetBSD.org cesfic
Gavan Fantomgavan@NetBSD.org iyonix
Jaime A Fournierober@NetBSD.org zaurus
Matt Fredettefredette@NetBSD.org sun2
Ichiro FUKUHARAichiro@NetBSD.org hpcarm
Chris Gilbertchris@NetBSD.org cats
Ben Harrisbjh21@NetBSD.org acorn26
Ross Harveyross@NetBSD.org alpha
Nick Hudsonskrll@NetBSD.org hp700
Martin Husemannmartin@NetBSD.org sparc64
IWAMOTO Toshihirotoshii@NetBSD.org hpcarm
Darrin Jewelldbj@NetBSD.org next68k
Søren Jørvangsoren@NetBSD.org sgimips
Wayne Knowleswdk@NetBSD.org mipsco
Takayoshi Kochikochi@NetBSD.org ia64
Paul Kranenburgpk@NetBSD.org sparc
Michael Lorenzmacallan@NetBSD.org macppc
Anders Magnussonragge@NetBSD.org vax
Cherry G. Mathewcherry@NetBSD.org ia64
NISHIMURA Takeshinsmrtks@NetBSD.org x68k
Tohru Nishimuranisimura@NetBSD.org luna68k
Tohru Nishimuranisimura@NetBSD.org sandpoint
Andrey Petrovpetrov@NetBSD.org sparc64
Scott Reynoldsscottr@NetBSD.org mac68k
Tim Rightnourgarbled@NetBSD.org ofppc
Tim Rightnourgarbled@NetBSD.org prep
Tim Rightnourgarbled@NetBSD.org rs6000
Noriyuki Sodasoda@NetBSD.org arc
Ignatios Souvatzisis@NetBSD.org amiga
Jonathan Stonejonathan@NetBSD.org pmax
Shin Takemuratakemura@NetBSD.org hpcmips
Matt Thomasmatt@NetBSD.org alpha
Matt Thomasmatt@NetBSD.org netwinder
Jason Thorpethorpej@NetBSD.org algor
Jason Thorpethorpej@NetBSD.org evbarm
Jason Thorpethorpej@NetBSD.org shark
Izumi Tsutsuitsutsui@NetBSD.org ews4800mips
Izumi Tsutsuitsutsui@NetBSD.org hp300
Izumi Tsutsuitsutsui@NetBSD.org news68k
Valeriy E. Ushakovuwe@NetBSD.org landisk
Nathan Williamsnathanw@NetBSD.org sun3
Steve Woodfordscw@NetBSD.org evbppc
Steve Woodfordscw@NetBSD.org mvme68k
Steve Woodfordscw@NetBSD.org mvmeppc
Reinoud Zandijkreinoud@NetBSD.org acorn32

The NetBSD 4.0.1 Release Engineering team:
Grant Beattiegrant@NetBSD.org
Manuel Bouyerbouyer@NetBSD.org
David Brownleeabs@NetBSD.org
James Chaconjmc@NetBSD.org
Julian Colemanjdc@NetBSD.org
Håvard Eidneshe@NetBSD.org
Liam J. Foyliamjfoy@NetBSD.org
John Heasleyheas@NetBSD.org
Geert Hendrickxghen@NetBSD.org
Soren Jacobsensnj@NetBSD.org
Daniel de Kokdaniel@NetBSD.org
Phil Nelsonphil@NetBSD.org
Jeff Rizzoriz@NetBSD.org

NetBSD Developers:
Nathan Ahlstromnra@NetBSD.org
Steve Allenwormey@NetBSD.org
Jukka Andbergjandberg@NetBSD.org
Julian Assangeproff@NetBSD.org
Lennart Augustssonaugustss@NetBSD.org
Christoph Badurabad@NetBSD.org
Bang Jun-Youngjunyoung@NetBSD.org
Dieter Barondillo@NetBSD.org
Robert V. Baronrvb@NetBSD.org
Alan Barrettapb@NetBSD.org
Grant Beattiegrant@NetBSD.org
Jason Beeganjtb@NetBSD.org
Erik Berlscyber@NetBSD.org
Hiroyuki Besshobsh@NetBSD.org
John Birrelljb@NetBSD.org
Mason Loring Blissmason@NetBSD.org
Charles Blundellcb@NetBSD.org
Rafal Bonirafal@NetBSD.org
Stephen Borrillsborrill@NetBSD.org
Sean Boudreauseanb@NetBSD.org
Manuel Bouyerbouyer@NetBSD.org
John Brezakbrezak@NetBSD.org
Allen Briggsbriggs@NetBSD.org
Mark Brinicombemark@NetBSD.org
Aaron Brownabrown@NetBSD.org
Andrew Brownatatat@NetBSD.org
David Brownleeabs@NetBSD.org
Frederick Bruckmanfredb@NetBSD.org
Jon Bullerjonb@NetBSD.org
Simon Burgesimonb@NetBSD.org
Robert Byrnesbyrnes@NetBSD.org
Pavel Cahynapavel@NetBSD.org
D'Arcy J.M. Caindarcy@NetBSD.org
Daniel Carosonedan@NetBSD.org
Dave Carrelcarrel@NetBSD.org
James Chaconjmc@NetBSD.org
Mihai Chelarukefren@NetBSD.org
Bill Coldwellbillc@NetBSD.org
Julian Colemanjdc@NetBSD.org
Ben Collverben@NetBSD.org
Marcus Comstedtmarcus@NetBSD.org
Jeremy Cooperjeremy@NetBSD.org
Chuck Cranorchuck@NetBSD.org
Alistair Crooksagc@NetBSD.org
Aidan Cullyaidan@NetBSD.org
Garrett D'Amoregdamore@NetBSD.org
Johan Danielssonjoda@NetBSD.org
John Darrowjdarrow@NetBSD.org
Jed Davisjld@NetBSD.org
Matt DeBergalisdeberg@NetBSD.org
Arnaud Degrootedegroote@NetBSD.org
Rob Dekerdeker@NetBSD.org
Chris G. Demetrioucgd@NetBSD.org
Tracy Di Marco Whitegendalia@NetBSD.org
Jaromír Dolecekjdolecek@NetBSD.org
Andy Doranad@NetBSD.org
Roland Dowdeswellelric@NetBSD.org
Emmanuel Dreyfusmanu@NetBSD.org
Matthias Drochnerdrochner@NetBSD.org
Jun Ebiharajun@NetBSD.org
Håvard Eidneshe@NetBSD.org
Jaime A Fournierober@NetBSD.org
Stoned Elipotseb@NetBSD.org
Michael van Elstmlelstv@NetBSD.org
Enami Tsugutomoenami@NetBSD.org
Bernd Ernestiveego@NetBSD.org
Erik Fairfair@NetBSD.org
Gavan Fantomgavan@NetBSD.org
Hauke Fathhauke@NetBSD.org
Hubert Feyrerhubertf@NetBSD.org
Jason R. Finkjrf@NetBSD.org
Matt J. Flemingmjf@NetBSD.org
Marty Foutsmarty@NetBSD.org
Liam J. Foyliamjfoy@NetBSD.org
Matt Fredettefredette@NetBSD.org
Thorsten Frueauffrueauf@NetBSD.org
Castor Fucastor@NetBSD.org
Ichiro Fukuharaichiro@NetBSD.org
Quentin Garniercube@NetBSD.org
Thomas Gernerthomas@NetBSD.org
Simon J. Gerratysjg@NetBSD.org
Justin Gibbsgibbs@NetBSD.org
Chris Gilbertchris@NetBSD.org
Eric Gillespieepg@NetBSD.org
Brian Ginsbachginsbach@NetBSD.org
Paul Goyettepgoyette@NetBSD.org
Michael Graffexplorer@NetBSD.org
Brian C. Graysonbgrayson@NetBSD.org
Matthew Greenmrg@NetBSD.org
Andreas Gustafssongson@NetBSD.org
Ulrich Habelrhaen@NetBSD.org
Jun-ichiro itojun Haginoitojun@NetBSD.org
HAMAJIMA Katsuomihamajima@NetBSD.org
Adam Hamsikhaad@NetBSD.org
Juergen Hannken-Illjeshannken@NetBSD.org
Charles M. Hannummycroft@NetBSD.org
Ben Harrisbjh21@NetBSD.org
Ross Harveyross@NetBSD.org
Eric Haszlakiewiczerh@NetBSD.org
John Hawkinsonjhawk@NetBSD.org
HAYAKAWA Koichihaya@NetBSD.org
John Heasleyheas@NetBSD.org
Geert Hendrickxghen@NetBSD.org
René Hexelrh@NetBSD.org
Iain Hibbertplunky@NetBSD.org
Kouichirou Hiratsukahira@NetBSD.org
Michael L. Hitchmhitch@NetBSD.org
Ádám Hókaahoka@NetBSD.org
Jachym Holecekfreza@NetBSD.org
David A. Hollanddholland@NetBSD.org
Christian E. Hoppschopps@NetBSD.org
Ken Hornsteinkenh@NetBSD.org
Marc Horowitzmarc@NetBSD.org
Eduardo Horvatheeh@NetBSD.org
Nick Hudsonskrll@NetBSD.org
Shell Hungshell@NetBSD.org
Martin Husemannmartin@NetBSD.org
Dean Huxleydean@NetBSD.org
Love Hörnquist Åstrandlha@NetBSD.org
Roland Illigrillig@NetBSD.org
Bernardo Innocentibernie@NetBSD.org
Tetsuya Isakiisaki@NetBSD.org
ITOH Yasufumiitohy@NetBSD.org
IWAMOTO Toshihirotoshii@NetBSD.org
Matthew Jacobmjacob@NetBSD.org
Soren Jacobsensnj@NetBSD.org
Lonhyn T. Jasinskyjlonhyn@NetBSD.org
Darrin Jewelldbj@NetBSD.org
Nicolas Jolynjoly@NetBSD.org
Chris Jonescjones@NetBSD.org
Søren Jørvangsoren@NetBSD.org
Takahiro Kambetaca@NetBSD.org
Masanori Kanaokakanaoka@NetBSD.org
Antti Kanteepooka@NetBSD.org
Frank Kardelkardel@NetBSD.org
Mattias Karlssonkeihan@NetBSD.org
KAWAMOTO Yosihisakawamoto@NetBSD.org
Mario Kempermagick@NetBSD.org
Min Sik Kimminskim@NetBSD.org
Thomas Klausnerwiz@NetBSD.org
Klaus Kleinkleink@NetBSD.org
John Klosjklos@NetBSD.org
Wayne Knowleswdk@NetBSD.org
Takayoshi Kochikochi@NetBSD.org
John Kohljtk@NetBSD.org
Daniel de Kokdaniel@NetBSD.org
Jonathan A. Kollaschjakllsch@NetBSD.org
Paul Kranenburgpk@NetBSD.org
Lubomir Kundraklkundrak@NetBSD.org
Jochen Kunzjkunz@NetBSD.org
Martti Kuparinenmartti@NetBSD.org
Kentaro A. Kurahonekurahone@NetBSD.org
Arnaud Lacombealc@NetBSD.org
Kevin Laheykml@NetBSD.org
David Laightdsl@NetBSD.org
Johnny C. Lamjlam@NetBSD.org
Martin J. Laubachmjl@NetBSD.org
Greg Leheygrog@NetBSD.org
Ted Lemonmellon@NetBSD.org
Christian Limpachcl@NetBSD.org
Frank van der Lindenfvdl@NetBSD.org
Joel Lindholmjoel@NetBSD.org
Tonnerre Lombardtonnerre@NetBSD.org
Mike Longmikel@NetBSD.org
Michael Lorenzmacallan@NetBSD.org
Warner Loshimp@NetBSD.org
Tomasz Luchowskizuntum@NetBSD.org
Federico Lupifederico@NetBSD.org
Brett Lymnblymn@NetBSD.org
Paul Mackerraspaulus@NetBSD.org
MAEKAWA Masahidegehenna@NetBSD.org
Anders Magnussonragge@NetBSD.org
Cherry G. Mathewcherry@NetBSD.org
David Maxwelldavid@NetBSD.org
Gregory McGarrygmcgarry@NetBSD.org
Dan McMahilldmcmahill@NetBSD.org
Jared D. McNeilljmcneill@NetBSD.org
Neil J. McRaeneil@NetBSD.org
Julio M. Merino Vidaljmmv@NetBSD.org
Perry Metzgerperry@NetBSD.org
Luke Mewburnlukem@NetBSD.org
Brook Milliganbrook@NetBSD.org
Minoura Makotominoura@NetBSD.org
Simas Mockeviciussymka@NetBSD.org
der Mousemouse@NetBSD.org
Joseph Myersjsm@NetBSD.org
Ken Nakatakenn@NetBSD.org
Takeshi Nakayamanakayama@NetBSD.org
Phil Nelsonphil@NetBSD.org
John Nemethjnemeth@NetBSD.org
Bob Nestorrnestor@NetBSD.org
NISHIMURA Takeshinsmrtks@NetBSD.org
Tohru Nishimuranisimura@NetBSD.org
NONAKA Kimihirononaka@NetBSD.org
Takehiko NOZAKItnozaki@NetBSD.org
Tobias Nygrentnn@NetBSD.org
OBATA Akioobache@NetBSD.org
Jesse Offjoff@NetBSD.org
Tatoku Ogaitotacha@NetBSD.org
OKANO Takayoshikano@NetBSD.org
Masaru Okioki@NetBSD.org
Atsushi Onoeonoe@NetBSD.org
Greg Osteroster@NetBSD.org
Rui Paulorpaulo@NetBSD.org
Jonathan Perkinsketch@NetBSD.org
Andrey Petrovpetrov@NetBSD.org
Herb Peyerlhpeyerl@NetBSD.org
Matthias Pfallermatthias@NetBSD.org
Chris Pinnockcjep@NetBSD.org
Adrian Portelliadrianp@NetBSD.org
Peter Postmapeter@NetBSD.org
Dante Profetadante@NetBSD.org
Chris Provenzanoproven@NetBSD.org
Niels Provosprovos@NetBSD.org
Mindaugas Rasiukeviciusrmind@NetBSD.org
Michael Rauchmrauch@NetBSD.org
Marc Rechtrecht@NetBSD.org
Darren Reeddarrenr@NetBSD.org
Jeremy C. Reedreed@NetBSD.org
Antoine Reillestonio@NetBSD.org
Tyler R. Retzlaffrtr@NetBSD.org
Scott Reynoldsscottr@NetBSD.org
Michael Richardsonmcr@NetBSD.org
Tim Rightnourgarbled@NetBSD.org
Alan Ritterrittera@NetBSD.org
Jeff Rizzoriz@NetBSD.org
Hans Rosenfeldhans@NetBSD.org
Gordon Rossgwr@NetBSD.org
Steve Rumblerumble@NetBSD.org
Ilpo Ruotsalainenlonewolf@NetBSD.org
Heiko W. Rupphwr@NetBSD.org
Blair J. Sadewitzbjs@NetBSD.org
David Saintydsainty@NetBSD.org
SAITOH Masanobumsaitoh@NetBSD.org
Kazuki Sakamotosakamoto@NetBSD.org
Curt Sampsoncjs@NetBSD.org
Wilfredo Sanchezwsanchez@NetBSD.org
Ty Sarnatsarna@NetBSD.org
SATO Kazumisato@NetBSD.org
Jan Schaumannjschauma@NetBSD.org
Matthias Schelertron@NetBSD.org
Silke Schelersilke@NetBSD.org
Karl Schilke (rAT)rat@NetBSD.org
Amitai Schlairschmonz@NetBSD.org
Konrad Schroderperseant@NetBSD.org
Georg Schwarzschwarz@NetBSD.org
Lubomir Sedlaciksalo@NetBSD.org
Christopher SEKIYAsekiya@NetBSD.org
Reed Shadgettdent@NetBSD.org
John Shannonshannonjr@NetBSD.org
Tim Shepardshep@NetBSD.org
Takeshi Shibagakishiba@NetBSD.org
Naoto Shimazakiigy@NetBSD.org
Takao Shinoharashin@NetBSD.org
Takuya SHIOZAKItshiozak@NetBSD.org
Daniel Siegerdsieger@NetBSD.org
Chuck Silverschs@NetBSD.org
Thor Lancelot Simontls@NetBSD.org
Jeff Smithjeffs@NetBSD.org
Noriyuki Sodasoda@NetBSD.org
Wolfgang Solfrankws@NetBSD.org
SOMEYA Yoshihikosomeya@NetBSD.org
Bill Sommerfeldsommerfeld@NetBSD.org
Jörg Sonnenbergerjoerg@NetBSD.org
Ignatios Souvatzisis@NetBSD.org
T K Spindlerdogcow@NetBSD.org
Bill Squiergroo@NetBSD.org
Jonathan Stonejonathan@NetBSD.org
Bill Studenmundwrstuden@NetBSD.org
Kevin Sullivansullivan@NetBSD.org
SUNAGAWA Keikikei@NetBSD.org
Kimmo Suominenkim@NetBSD.org
Robert Swindellsrjs@NetBSD.org
Shin Takemuratakemura@NetBSD.org
TAMURA Kentkent@NetBSD.org
Shin'ichiro TAYAtaya@NetBSD.org
Ian Lance Taylorian@NetBSD.org
Matt Thomasmatt@NetBSD.org
Jason Thorpethorpej@NetBSD.org
Christoph Toshoktoshok@NetBSD.org
Greg Troxelgdt@NetBSD.org
Tsubai Masanaritsubai@NetBSD.org
Izumi Tsutsuitsutsui@NetBSD.org
UCHIYAMA Yasushiuch@NetBSD.org
Masao Uebayashiuebayasi@NetBSD.org
Shuichiro URATAur@NetBSD.org
Valeriy E. Ushakovuwe@NetBSD.org
Todd Vierlingtv@NetBSD.org
Aymeric Vincentaymeric@NetBSD.org
Paul Vixievixie@NetBSD.org
Mike M. Volokhovmishka@NetBSD.org
Krister Walfridssonkristerw@NetBSD.org
Lex Wennmacherwennmach@NetBSD.org
Leo Weppelmanleo@NetBSD.org
Assar Westerlundassar@NetBSD.org
Todd Whiteseltoddpw@NetBSD.org
Frank Willephx@NetBSD.org
Nathan Williamsnathanw@NetBSD.org
Rob Windsorwindsor@NetBSD.org
Dan Winshipdanw@NetBSD.org
Jim Wisejwise@NetBSD.org
Michael Wolfsonmbw@NetBSD.org
Colin Woodender@NetBSD.org
Steve Woodfordscw@NetBSD.org
YAMAMOTO Takashiyamt@NetBSD.org
Yuji Yamanoyyamano@NetBSD.org
David Youngdyoung@NetBSD.org
Reinoud Zandijkreinoud@NetBSD.org
S.P.Zeidlerspz@NetBSD.org
Maria Zevenhovenmaria7@NetBSD.org
Christos Zoulaschristos@NetBSD.org

Other contributors:
Dave Burgessburgess@cynjut.infonet.net
Brian R. Gaekebrg@dgate.org
Brad Granthamgrantham@tenon.com
Lawrence Kestelootkesteloo@cs.unc.edu
Waldi Ravenswaldi@moacs.indiv.nl.net

Legal Mumbo-Jumbo

All product names mentioned herein are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners.

The following notices are required to satisfy the license terms of the software that we have mentioned in this document:

NetBSD is a registered trademark of The NetBSD Foundation, Inc.

This product includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by the NetBSD Foundation.
This product includes software developed by The NetBSD Foundation, Inc. and its contributors.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project. See http://www.netbsd.org/ for information about NetBSD.
This product contains software developed by Ignatios Souvatzis for the NetBSD project.
This product contains software written by Ignatios Souvatzis and Michael L. Hitch for the NetBSD project.
This product contains software written by Michael L. Hitch for the NetBSD project.
This product includes cryptographic software written by Eric Young (eay@cryptsoft.com)
This product includes cryptographic software written by Eric Young (eay@mincom.oz.au)
This product includes software designed by William Allen Simpson.
This product includes software developed at Ludd, University of Lulea, Sweden and its contributors.
This product includes software developed at Ludd, University of Lulea.
This product includes software developed at the Information Technology Division, US Naval Research Laboratory.
This product includes software developed by Berkeley Software Design, Inc.
This product includes software developed by David Jones and Gordon Ross
This product includes software developed by Gordon W. Ross and Leo Weppelman.
This product includes software developed by Hellmuth Michaelis and Joerg Wunsch
This product includes software developed by Internet Research Institute, Inc.
This product includes software developed by Leo Weppelman and Waldi Ravens.
This product includes software developed by Mika Kortelainen
This product includes software developed by Aaron Brown and Harvard University.
This product includes software developed by Adam Ciarcinski for the NetBSD project.
This product includes software developed by Adam Glass and Charles M. Hannum.
This product includes software developed by Adam Glass.
This product includes software developed by Advanced Risc Machines Ltd.
This product includes software developed by Alex Zepeda, and Colin Wood for the NetBSD Projet.
This product includes software developed by Alex Zepeda.
This product includes software developed by Alistair G. Crooks.
This product includes software developed by Alistair G. Crooks. for the NetBSD project.
This product includes software developed by Allen Briggs
This product includes software developed by Amancio Hasty and Roger Hardiman
This product includes software developed by Berkeley Software Design, Inc.
This product includes software developed by Berkeley Software Design, Inc.
This product includes software developed by Bill Paul.
This product includes software developed by Bodo Moeller. (If available, substitute umlauted o for oe)
This product includes software developed by Boris Popov.
This product includes software developed by Brad Pepers
This product includes software developed by Bradley A. Grantham.
This product includes software developed by Brini.
This product includes software developed by Causality Limited.
This product includes software developed by Charles D. Cranor and Seth Widoff.
This product includes software developed by Charles D. Cranor and Washington University.
This product includes software developed by Charles D. Cranor, Washington University, and the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by Charles D. Cranor, Washington University, the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by Charles D. Cranor.
This product includes software developed by Charles Hannum.
This product includes software developed by Charles M. Hannum, by the University of Vermont and State Agricultural College and Garrett A. Wollman, by William F. Jolitz, and by the University of California, Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by Charles M. Hannum.
This product includes software developed by Christian E. Hopps, Ezra Story, Kari Mettinen, Markus Wild, Lutz Vieweg and Michael Teske.
This product includes software developed by Christian E. Hopps.
This product includes software developed by Christian Limpach
This product includes software developed by Christopher G. Demetriou for the NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by Christopher G. Demetriou.
This product includes software developed by Christos Zoulas.
This product includes software developed by Chuck Silvers.
This product includes software developed by Colin Wood for the NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by Colin Wood.
This product includes software developed by Cybernet Corporation and Nan Yang Computer Services Limited
This product includes software developed by Daishi Kato
This product includes software developed by Dale Rahn.
This product includes software developed by Daniel Widenfalk and Michael L. Hitch.
This product includes software developed by Daniel Widenfalk for the NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by Darrin B. Jewell
This product includes software developed by David Miller.
This product includes software developed by Dean Huxley.
This product includes software developed by Eduardo Horvath.
This product includes software developed by Eric S. Hvozda.
This product includes software developed by Eric S. Raymond
This product includes software developed by Eric Young (eay@@mincom.oz.au)
This product includes software developed by Eric Young (eay@cryptsoft.com)
This product includes software developed by Eric Young (eay@mincom.oz.au)
This product includes software developed by Ezra Story and by Kari Mettinen.
This product includes software developed by Ezra Story, by Kari Mettinen and by Bernd Ernesti.
This product includes software developed by Ezra Story, by Kari Mettinen, Michael Teske and by Bernd Ernesti.
This product includes software developed by Ezra Story, by Kari Mettinen, and Michael Teske.
This product includes software developed by Ezra Story.
This product includes software developed by Frank van der Linden for the NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by Gardner Buchanan.
This product includes software developed by Gary Thomas.
This product includes software developed by Gordon Ross
This product includes software developed by Gordon W. Ross
This product includes software developed by HAYAKAWA Koichi.
This product includes software developed by Harvard University and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by Harvard University.
This product includes software developed by Herb Peyerl.
This product includes software developed by Hubert Feyrer for the NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by Iain Hibbert
This product includes software developed by Ian F. Darwin and others.
This product includes software developed by Ian W. Dall.
This product includes software developed by Ichiro FUKUHARA.
This product includes software developed by Ignatios Souvatzis for the NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by Internet Initiative Japan Inc.
This product includes software developed by James R. Maynard III.
This product includes software developed by Jared D. McNeill.
This product includes software developed by Jason L. Wright
This product includes software developed by Jason R. Thorpe for And Communications, http://www.and.com/
This product includes software developed by Joachim Koenig-Baltes.
This product includes software developed by Jochen Pohl for The NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by Joerg Wunsch
This product includes software developed by John Birrell.
This product includes software developed by John P. Wittkoski.
This product includes software developed by John Polstra.
This product includes software developed by Jonathan R. Stone for the NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by Jonathan Stone and Jason R. Thorpe for the NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by Jonathan Stone.
This product includes software developed by Juan Romero Pardines for the NetBSD Foundation, Inc. and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by Jukka Marin.
This product includes software developed by Julian Highfield.
This product includes software developed by Kazuhisa Shimizu.
This product includes software developed by Kazuki Sakamoto.
This product includes software developed by Kenneth Stailey.
This product includes software developed by Kiyoshi Ikehara.
This product includes software developed by Klaus Burkert,by Bernd Ernesti, by Michael van Elst, and by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by LAN Media Corporation and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by Leo Weppelman for the NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by Leo Weppelman.
This product includes software developed by Lloyd Parkes.
This product includes software developed by Luke Mewburn.
This product includes software developed by Lutz Vieweg.
This product includes software developed by MINOURA Makoto, Takuya Harakawa.
This product includes software developed by Manuel Bouyer.
This product includes software developed by Marc Horowitz.
This product includes software developed by Marcus Comstedt.
This product includes software developed by Mark Brinicombe for the NetBSD project.
This product includes software developed by Mark Brinicombe.
This product includes software developed by Mark Murray
This product includes software developed by Mark Tinguely and Jim Lowe
This product includes software developed by Markus Wild.
This product includes software developed by Martin Husemann and Wolfgang Solfrank.
This product includes software developed by Masanobu Saitoh.
This product includes software developed by Masaru Oki.
This product includes software developed by Mats O Jansson and Charles D. Cranor.
This product includes software developed by Mats O Jansson.
This product includes software developed by Matt DeBergalis
This product includes software developed by Matthew Fredette.
This product includes software developed by Matthias Pfaller.
This product includes software developed by Michael Graff for the NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by Michael Graff.
This product includes software developed by Michael L. Hitch.
This product includes software developed by Michael Shalayeff.
This product includes software developed by Michael Smith.
This product includes software developed by Mike Glover and contributors.
This product includes software developed by Mike Pritchard.
This product includes software developed by Minoura Makoto.
This product includes software developed by Nan Yang Computer Services Limited.
This product includes software developed by Niels Provos.
This product includes software developed by Niklas Hallqvist, Brandon Creighton and Job de Haas.
This product includes software developed by Niklas Hallqvist.
This product includes software developed by Onno van der Linden.
This product includes software developed by Paul Kranenburg.
This product includes software developed by Paul Mackerras.
This product includes software developed by Per Fogelstrom
This product includes software developed by Peter Galbavy.
This product includes software developed by Phase One, Inc.
This product includes software developed by Philip A. Nelson.
This product includes software developed by Philip L. Budne.
This product includes software developed by RiscBSD.
This product includes software developed by Roar Thronæs.
This product includes software developed by Rodney W. Grimes.
This product includes software developed by Roger Hardiman
This product includes software developed by Roland C. Dowdeswell.
This product includes software developed by Rolf Grossmann.
This product includes software developed by Ross Harvey for the NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by Ross Harvey.
This product includes software developed by Scott Bartram.
This product includes software developed by Scott Stevens.
This product includes software developed by Shingo WATANABE.
This product includes software developed by Softweyr LLC, the University of California, Berkeley, and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by Soren S. Jorvang.
This product includes software developed by Stephan Thesing.
This product includes software developed by Steve Woodford.
This product includes software developed by Takashi Hamada
This product includes software developed by Takumi Nakamura.
This product includes software developed by Tatoku Ogaito for the NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by Terrence R. Lambert.
This product includes software developed by Tetsuya Isaki.
This product includes software developed by Thomas Gerner
This product includes software developed by Thomas Klausner for the NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by Tobias Weingartner.
This product includes software developed by Todd C. Miller.
This product includes software developed by Tohru Nishimura and Reinoud Zandijk for the NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by Tohru Nishimura for the NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by Tohru Nishimura. for the NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by TooLs GmbH.
This product includes software developed by Toru Nishimura.
This product includes software developed by Trimble Navigation, Ltd.
This product includes software developed by WIDE Project and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by Waldi Ravens.
This product includes software developed by Wasabi Systems for Zembu Labs, Inc. http://www.zembu.com/
This product includes software developed by Winning Strategies, Inc.
This product includes software developed by Wolfgang Solfrank.
This product includes software developed by Yasushi Yamasaki
This product includes software developed by Zembu Labs, Inc.
This product includes software developed by the Alice Group.
This product includes software developed by the Center for Software Science at the University of Utah.
This product includes software developed by the Charles D. Cranor, Washington University, University of California, Berkeley and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by the Computer Systems Engineering Group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.
This product includes software developed by the David Muir Sharnoff.
This product includes software developed by the Harvard University and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by the Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by the Network Research Group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.
This product includes software developed by the OpenSSL Project for use in the OpenSSL Toolkit. (http://www.OpenSSL.org/)
This product includes software developed by the PocketBSD project and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by the RiscBSD kernel team
This product includes software developed by the RiscBSD team.
This product includes software developed by the SMCC Technology Development Group at Sun Microsystems, Inc.
This product includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors, as well as the Trustees of Columbia University.
This product includes software developed by the University of California, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by the University of California, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.
This product includes software developed by the University of Illinois at Urbana and their contributors.
This product includes software developed by the University of Vermont and State Agricultural College and Garrett A. Wollman.
This product includes software developed by the University of Vermont and State Agricultural College and Garrett A. Wollman, by William F. Jolitz, and by the University of California, Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and its contributors.
This product includes software developed for the FreeBSD project
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Bernd Ernesti.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Christopher G. Demetriou.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Christos Zoulas
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Emmanuel Dreyfus.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Frank van der Linden
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Ignatios Souvatzis.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Jason R. Thorpe.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by John M. Vinopal.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Matthias Drochner.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Michael L. Hitch.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Perry E. Metzger.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Scott Bartram and Frank van der Linden
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Allegro Networks, Inc., and Wasabi Systems, Inc.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Genetec Corporation.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Jonathan Stone.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Piermont Information Systems Inc.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by SUNET, Swedish University Computer Network.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Shigeyuki Fukushima.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Wasabi Systems, Inc.
This product includes software developed under OpenBSD by Per Fogelstrom Opsycon AB for RTMX Inc, North Carolina, USA.
This product includes software developed under OpenBSD by Per Fogelstrom.
This software is a component of "386BSD" developed by William F. Jolitz, TeleMuse.
This software was developed by Holger Veit and Brian Moore for use with "386BSD" and similar operating systems. "Similar operating systems" includes mainly non-profit oriented systems for research and education, including but not restricted to "NetBSD", "FreeBSD", "Mach" (by CMU).
This software includes software developed by the Computer Systems Laboratory at the University of Utah.
This product includes software developed by Computing Services at Carnegie Mellon University (http://www.cmu.edu/computing/).
This product includes software developed by Marshall M. Midden.
This product includes software developed or owned by Caldera International, Inc.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and The Open Group, have given us permission to reprint portions of their documentation.

In the following statement, the phrase ``this text'' refers to portions of the system documentation.

Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form in NetBSD, from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2004 Edition, Standard for Information Technology -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2004 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. In the event of any discrepancy between these versions and the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document.

The original Standard can be obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html.

This notice shall appear on any product containing this material

This product includes software developed by Tobias Abt.
This product includes software developed by Klaus Burkert.
This product includes software developed by Michael van Elst.
This product includes software developed by Bernd Ernesti.
This product includes software developed by Markus Illenseer.
This product includes software developed by Mika Kortelainen.
This product includes software developed by Jukka Marin.
This product includes software developed by Kari Mettinen.
This product includes software developed by Brad Pepers.
This product includes software developed by Ignatios Souvatzis.
This product includes software developed by Michael Teske.
This product includes software developed by Lutz Vieweg.
This product includes software developed by Daniel Widenfalk.

The End