April 24, 2010 INSTALL 8 NetBSD

NAME

INSTALL - Installation procedure for NetBSD/amiga.

CONTENTS

                                                              

About this Document............................................2 What is NetBSD?................................................2 Changes Between the NetBSD 5.0 and 5.1 Releases................2 Security Advisory Fixes.....................................3 Other Security Fixes........................................3 Kernel......................................................4 File Systems................................................5 Networking..................................................5 Miscellaneous Drivers.......................................7 Audio.......................................................7 Security....................................................7 Storage.....................................................8 Platform specific...........................................8 Miscellaneous..............................................11 Known Problems.............................................15 Features to be removed in a later release.....................15 The NetBSD Foundation.........................................15 Sources of NetBSD.............................................16 NetBSD 5.1_RC3 Release Contents...............................16 NetBSD/amiga subdirectory structure........................17 Miniroot file system.......................................17 Binary distribution sets...................................17 NetBSD/amiga System Requirements and Supported Devices........19 Supported devices..........................................19 Getting the NetBSD System on to Useful Media..................20 Preparing your System for NetBSD installation.................23 Preparing your hard disk with HDToolBox....................23 Transferring the miniroot file system......................24 Installing the NetBSD System..................................25 Booting....................................................25 Once your kernel boots.....................................26 Post installation steps.......................................28 Upgrading a previously-installed NetBSD System................31 Once your kernel boots.....................................31 Compatibility Issues With Previous NetBSD Releases............32 Issues affecting an upgrade from NetBSD 4.x releases.......33 Issues affecting an upgrade from NetBSD 3.x releases.......33 Issues affecting an upgrade from NetBSD 4.x releases.......34 Using online NetBSD documentation.............................35 Administrivia.................................................35 Thanks go to..................................................36 We are........................................................37 Legal Mumbo-Jumbo.............................................43 The End.......................................................49

DESCRIPTION

About this Document

This document describes the installation procedure for NetBSD 5.1_RC3 on the amiga platform. It is available in four different formats titled INSTALL.ext, where .ext is one of .ps, .html, .more, or .txt:

.ps
PostScript.

.html
Standard Internet HTML.

.more
The enhanced text format used on UNIX-like systems by the more(1) and less(1) pager utility programs. This is the format in which the on-line man pages are generally presented.

.txt
Plain old ASCII.

You are reading the HTML version.

What is NetBSD?

The NetBSD Operating System is a fully functional Open Source UNIX-like operating system derived from the University of California, Berkeley Networking Release 2 (Net/2), 4.4BSD-Lite, and 4.4BSD-Lite2 sources. NetBSD runs on 57 different system architectures (ports) across 15 distinct CPU families, and is being ported to more. The NetBSD 5.1_RC3 release contains complete binary releases for many different system architectures. (A few ports are not fully supported at this time and are thus not part of the binary distribution. Please see the NetBSD web site at http://www.NetBSD.org/ for information on them.)

NetBSD is a completely integrated system. In addition to its highly portable, high performance kernel, NetBSD features a complete set of user utilities, compilers for several languages, the X Window System, firewall software and numerous other tools, all accompanied by full source code.

NetBSD is a creation of the members of the Internet community. Without the unique cooperation and coordination the net makes possible, it's likely that NetBSD wouldn't exist.

Changes Between the NetBSD 5.0 and 5.1 Releases

The NetBSD 5.1_RC3 release is the first feature update of the NetBSD 5.0 release branch. It represents a selected subset of fixes deemed critical for security or stability reasons, as well as new features and enhancements.

Please note that all fixes in security/critical updates (i.e., NetBSD 5.0.1, 5.0.2, etc.) are cumulative, so the latest update contains all such fixes since the corresponding minor release. These fixes also appear in minor releases (i.e., NetBSD 5.1, 5.2, etc.).

The complete list of changes can be found in the CHANGES-5.1: http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-5.1/CHANGES-5.1 file in the top level directory of the NetBSD 5.1 release tree. An abbreviated list is as follows:

Security Advisory Fixes

Advisories prior to NetBSD-SA2009-004 do not affect NetBSD 5.0: http://www.NetBSD.org/support/security/patches-5.0.html.

Other Security Fixes
Kernel
File Systems
Networking
Miscellaneous Drivers
Audio
Security
Storage
Platform specific
Miscellaneous
Known Problems

Using block device nodes (e.g., wd0a) directly for I/O may cause a kernel crash when the file system containing /dev is FFS and is mounted with -o log. Workaround: use raw disk devices (e.g., rwd0a), or remount the file system without -o log.

Occassionally, gdb may cause a process that is being debugged to hang when ``single stepped''. Workaround: kill and restart the affected process.

gdb cannot debug running threaded programs correctly. Workaround: generate a core file from the program using gcore(1) and pass the core to gdb, instead of debugging the running program.

Statically linked binaries using pthreads are currently broken.

The sparc port does not have functional SMP support in this release.

Features to be removed in a later release

The following features are to be removed from NetBSD in the future:

The NetBSD Foundation

The NetBSD Foundation is a tax exempt, not-for-profit 501(c)(3) corporation that devotes itself to the traditional goals and Spirit of the NetBSD Project and owns the trademark of the word ``NetBSD''. It supports the design, development, and adoption of NetBSD worldwide. More information on the NetBSD Foundation, its composition, aims, and work can be found at: http://www.NetBSD.org/foundation/

Sources of NetBSD

Refer to http://www.NetBSD.org/mirrors/

NetBSD 5.1_RC3 Release Contents

The root directory of the NetBSD 5.1_RC3 release is organized as follows:

.../NetBSD-5.1_RC3/

CHANGES
Changes between the 4.0 and 5.0 releases.

CHANGES-5.0
Changes between the initial 5.0 branch and final release of 5.0.

CHANGES-5.1
Changes between the 5.0 and 5.1 releases.

CHANGES.prev
Changes in previous NetBSD releases.

LAST_MINUTE
Last minute changes and notes about the release.

README.files
README describing the distribution's contents.

source/
Source distribution sets; see below.

In addition to the files and directories listed above, there is one directory per architecture, for each of the architectures for which NetBSD 5.1_RC3 has a binary distribution.

The source distribution sets can be found in subdirectories of the source subdirectory of the distribution tree. They contain the complete sources to the system. The source distribution sets are as follows:

gnusrc
This set contains the ``gnu'' sources, including the source for the compiler, assembler, groff, and the other GNU utilities in the binary distribution sets.
79 MB gzipped, 450 MB uncompressed

sharesrc
This set contains the ``share'' sources, which include the sources for the man pages not associated with any particular program; the sources for the typesettable document set; the dictionaries; and more.
7 MB gzipped, 32 MB uncompressed

src
This set contains all of the base NetBSD 5.1_RC3 sources which are not in gnusrc, sharesrc, or syssrc.
59 MB gzipped, 350 MB uncompressed

syssrc
This set contains the sources to the NetBSD 5.1_RC3 kernel for all architectures as well as the config(1) utility.
34 MB gzipped, 197 MB uncompressed

xsrc
This set contains the sources to the X Window System.
127 MB gzipped, 694 MB uncompressed

All the above source sets are located in the source/sets subdirectory of the distribution tree.

The source sets are distributed as compressed tar files. Except for the pkgsrc set, which is traditionally unpacked into /usr/pkgsrc, all sets may be unpacked into /usr/src with the command:
       # cd / ; tar -zxpf set_name.tgz

In each of the source distribution set directories, there are files which contain the checksums of the files in the directory:

MD5
MD5 digests in the format produced by the command:
cksum -a MD5 file.

SHA512
SHA512 digests in the format produced by the command:
cksum -a SHA512 file.

The SHA512 digest is safer, but MD5 checksums are provided so that a wider range of operating systems can check the integrity of the release files.

NetBSD/amiga subdirectory structure
The amiga-specific portion of the NetBSD 5.1_RC3 release is found in the amiga subdirectory of the distribution: .../NetBSD-5.1_RC3/amiga/. It contains the following files and directories:

INSTALL.html
INSTALL.ps
INSTALL.txt
INSTALL.more
Installation notes in various file formats, including this file. The .more file contains underlined text using the more(1) conventions for indicating italic and bold display.
binary/
kernel/
netbsd-GENERIC.gz
A gzipped NetBSD kernel containing code for everything supported in this release.
sets/
amiga binary distribution sets; see below.
installation/
floppy/
amiga boot and installation floppies; see below.
miniroot/
amiga miniroot file system image; see below.
misc/
Miscellaneous amiga installation utilities; see installation section below.
Miniroot file system
The Amiga now uses a single miniroot file system for both an initial installation and for an upgrade. A gzipped version is available, for easier downloading. (The gzipped version has the .gz extension added to their names.)

miniroot.fs
This file contains a BSD root file system setup to help you install the rest of NetBSD or to upgrade a previous version of NetBSD. This includes formatting and mounting your / (root) and /usr partitions and getting ready to extract (and possibly first fetching) the distribution sets. There is enough on this file system to allow you to make a SLIP or PPP connection, configure an Ethernet, mount an NFS file system or ftp. You can also load distribution sets from a SCSI tape or from one of your existing AmigaDOS partitions.
Binary distribution sets
The NetBSD amiga binary distribution sets contain the binaries which comprise the NetBSD 5.1_RC3 release for amiga. The binary distribution sets can be found in the amiga/binary/sets subdirectory of the NetBSD 5.1_RC3 distribution tree, and are as follows:

base
The NetBSD 5.1_RC3 amiga base binary distribution. You must install this distribution set. It contains the base NetBSD utilities that are necessary for the system to run and be minimally functional.
26 MB gzipped, 76 MB uncompressed

comp
Things needed for compiling programs. This set includes the system include files (/usr/include) and the various system libraries (except the shared libraries, which are included as part of the base set). This set also includes the manual pages for all of the utilities it contains, as well as the system call and library manual pages.
36 MB gzipped, 130 MB uncompressed

etc
This distribution set contains the system configuration files that reside in /etc and in several other places. This set must be installed if you are installing the system from scratch, but should not be used if you are upgrading.
1 MB gzipped, 1 MB uncompressed

games
This set includes the games and their manual pages.
4 MB gzipped, 8 MB uncompressed

kern-GENERIC
This set contains a NetBSD/amiga 5.1_RC3 GENERIC kernel, named /netbsd. You must install this distribution set.
2 MB gzipped, 4 MB uncompressed

man
This set includes all of the manual pages for the binaries and other software contained in the base set. Note that it does not include any of the manual pages that are included in the other sets.
12 MB gzipped, 50 MB uncompressed

misc
This set includes the system dictionaries, the typesettable document set, and other files from /usr/share.
4 MB gzipped, 13 MB uncompressed

text
This set includes NetBSD's text processing tools, including groff(1), all related programs, and their manual pages.
3 MB gzipped, 10 MB uncompressed

NetBSD maintains its own set of sources for the X Window System in order to assure tight integration and compatibility. These sources are based on XFree86 4.5.0. Binary sets for the X Window System are distributed with NetBSD. The sets are:

xbase
The basic files needed for a complete X client environment. This does not include the X servers.
6 MB gzipped, 19 MB uncompressed

xcomp
The extra libraries and include files needed to compile X source code.
11 MB gzipped, 43 MB uncompressed

xfont
Fonts needed by the X server and by X clients.
31 MB gzipped, 39 MB uncompressed

xetc
Configuration files for X which could be locally modified.
1 MB gzipped, 1 MB uncompressed

xserver
The X server.
5 MB gzipped, 11 MB uncompressed

The amiga binary distribution sets are distributed as gzipped tar files named with the extension .tgz, e.g. base.tgz.

The instructions given for extracting the source sets work equally well for the binary sets, but it is worth noting that if you use that method, the filenames stored in the sets are relative and therefore the files are extracted below the current directory. Therefore, if you want to extract the binaries into your system, i.e. replace the system binaries with them, you have to run the tar -xzpf command from the root directory ( / ) of your system.

Note:
Each directory in the amiga binary distribution also has its own checksum files, just as the source distribution does.

NetBSD/amiga System Requirements and Supported Devices

NetBSD5.1_RC3 runs on any Amiga that has a 68020 or better CPU with some form of MMU, and on 68060 DraCos.

NetBSD does not, and will never, run on run on A1000, A500, A600, A1200, A2000, A4000/EC030, CDTV and CD32 systems that are not enhanced by a CPU board.

For 68020 and 68030 systems, a FPU is recommended but not required for the system utilities. 68LC040, 68040V and 68LC060 systems don't work correctly at the moment.

The minimal configuration requires 6 MB of RAM (not including CHIPMEM!) and about 100 MB of disk space. To install the entire system requires much more disk space, and to run X or compile the system, more RAM is recommended. (6 MB of RAM will actually allow you to compile, however it won't be speedy. X really isn't usable on a 6 MB system.)

You will probably want to compile your own kernel. GENERIC is large and bulky in order to accommodate all people. For example, most people's machines have an FPU, so you do not need the bulky FPU_EMULATE option.

If you have less than 8 MB of fast memory, you should make your swap partition large, as your system will be a lot of swapping. In addition, do not place your swap partition onto a old small (and normally slow) disk!

Supported devices

If it's not on the above lists, there is no support for it in this release. In particular, there are no drivers for: Blizzard III SCSI option, Ferret SCSI, Oktagon SCSI.

Getting the NetBSD System on to Useful Media

Note that if you are installing or upgrading from writable media, it can be write-protected if you wish. These systems mount a root image from inside the kernel, and will not need to write to the media. If you booted from a floppy, the floppy disk may be removed from the drive after the system has booted.

Installation is supported from several media types, including:

The steps necessary to prepare the distribution sets for installation depend upon which installation medium you choose. The steps for the various media are outlined below.

AmigaDOS partition
To install NetBSD from an AmigaDOS partition, you need to get the NetBSD distribution sets you wish to install on your system on to an AmigaDOS partition.

Note where you place the files as you will need this later.

Once you have done this, you can proceed to the next step in the installation process, preparing your hard disk.

CD-ROM / DVD
To install NetBSD from a CD-ROM drive, make sure it is a SCSI CD-ROM on a SCSI bus currently supported by NetBSD (refer to the supported hardware list) or an ATAPI CD-ROM connected to the A1200 or A4000 internal IDE connector. If it is a SCSI CD-ROM on a non-supported SCSI bus like Blizzard-3 SCSI or Apollo SCSI you must first copy the distribution sets to an AmigaDOS partition as described above.

If your SCSI CD-ROM is connected to a supported SCSI host adapter, or it is an ATAPI cd-rom connected to the A1200/A4000 internal IDE connector, simply put the CD into the drive before installation.

Find out where the distribution set files are on the CD-ROM or DVD. Likely locations are binary/sets and amiga/binary/sets.

Proceed to the instructions on installation.

MS-DOS floppy
NetBSD does not include split distribution sets for installation by floppy. However, they can be created on a separate machine using the split(1) command, running e.g. split -b 235k base.tgz base. to split the base.tgz file from amiga/binary/sets into files named base.aa, base.ab, and so on. Repeat this for all set_name.tgz files, splitting them into set_name.xx files. Count the number of set_name.xx files that make up the distribution sets you want to install or upgrade. You will need one sixth that number of 1.44 MB floppies.

Format all of the floppies with MS-DOS. Do not make any of them bootable MS-DOS floppies, i.e. don't use format /s to format them. (If the floppies are bootable, then the MS-DOS system files that make them bootable will take up some space, and you won't be able to fit the distribution set parts on the disks.) If you're using floppies that are formatted for MS-DOS by their manufacturers, they probably aren't bootable, and you can use them out of the box.

Place all of the set_name.xx files on the MS-DOS disks.

Once you have the files on MS-DOS disks, you can proceed to the next step in the installation or upgrade process. If you're installing NetBSD from scratch, go to the section on preparing your hard disk, below. If you're upgrading an existing installation, go directly to the section on upgrading.

FTP
The preparations for this installation/upgrade method are easy; all you need to do is make sure that there's an FTP site from which you can retrieve the NetBSD distribution when you're about to install or upgrade. If you don't have DHCP available on your network, you will need to know the numeric IP address of that site, and, if it's not on a network directly connected to the machine on which you're installing or upgrading NetBSD, you need to know the numeric IP address of the router closest to the NetBSD machine. Finally, you need to know the numeric IP address of the NetBSD machine itself. If you don't have access to a functioning nameserver during installation, the IPv4 address of ftp.NetBSD.org is 204.152.190.15 and the IPv6 address is 2001:4f8:3:7:230:48ff:fec6:9aaa:21 (as of May, 2010).

Once you have this information, you can proceed to the next step in the installation or upgrade process. If you're installing NetBSD from scratch, go to the section on preparing your hard disk, below. If you're upgrading an existing installation, go directly to the section on upgrading.

NFS
Place the NetBSD distribution sets you wish to install into a directory on an NFS server, and make that directory mountable by the machine on which you are installing or upgrading NetBSD. This will probably require modifying the /etc/exports file on the NFS server and resetting its mount daemon (mountd). (Both of these actions will probably require superuser privileges on the server.)

You need to know the numeric IP address of the NFS server, and, if you don't have DHCP available on your network and the server is not on a network directly connected to the machine on which you're installing or upgrading NetBSD, you need to know the numeric IP address of the router closest to the NetBSD machine. Finally, you need to know the numeric IP address of the NetBSD machine itself.

Once the NFS server is set up properly and you have the information mentioned above, you can proceed to the next step in the installation or upgrade process. If you're installing NetBSD from scratch, go to the section on preparing your hard disk, below. If you're upgrading an existing installation, go directly to the section on upgrading.

Tape
To install NetBSD from a tape, you need to make a tape that contains the distribution set files, in `tar' format.

If you're making the tape on a UNIX-like system, the easiest way to do so is probably something like:

       # tar -cf tape_device dist_directories

where tape_device is the name of the tape device that describes the tape drive you're using; possibly /dev/rst0, or something similar, but it will vary from system to system. (If you can't figure it out, ask your system administrator.) In the above example, dist_directories are the distribution sets' directories, for the distribution sets you wish to place on the tape. For instance, to put the kern-GENERIC, base, and etc distributions on tape (in order to do the absolute minimum installation to a new disk), you would do the following:


       # cd .../NetBSD-5.1_RC3
       # cd amiga/binary
       # tar -cf tape_device kern-GENERIC base etc

Note:
You still need to fill in tape_device in the example.

Once you have the files on the tape, you can proceed to the next step in the installation or upgrade process. If you're installing NetBSD from scratch, go to the section on preparing your hard disk, below. If you're upgrading an existing installation, go directly to the section on upgrading.


Preparing your System for NetBSD installation

You will need an AmigaDOS hard drive prep tool to prepare your hard drives for use with NetBSD/amiga. HDToolBox is provided with the system software and on floppy installation disks since Release 2.0 of AmigaDOS, so we will provide instructions for its use.

Note that NetBSD can't currently be installed on disks with a sector size other than 512 bytes (e.g., ``640 MB'' 90mm M-O media). You can, however, mount ADOSFS partitions on such M-O's.

Preparing your hard disk with HDToolBox

A full explanation of HDToolBox can be found with your AmigaDOS manuals and is beyond the scope of this document.

The first time you partition a drive, you need to set its drive type so that you have working geometry parameters. To do this you enter the ``Change drive type'' menu, and either use ``read parameters from drive'' or set them manually.

Note that you will be modifying your HD's. If you mess something up here you could lose everything on all the drives that you configure. It is therefore advised that you:

  1. Write down your current configurations. Do this by examining each partition on the drive and the drives parameters (from Change drive type.)

  2. Back up the partitions you are keeping.

What you need to do now is partition your drives, creating at least root and swap partitions.

This should be done as the HDToolBox manual describes. One thing to note is that if you are not using a Commodore controller you will need to specify the device your SCSI controller uses, e.g., if you have a Warp Engine you would:

From cli
       hdtoolbox warpdrive.device

From wb
Set the tooltype


       SCSI_DEVICE_NAME=warpdrive.device

The important things you need to do above and beyond normal partitioning include (from Partition Drive section):

  1. Marking all NetBSD partitions as non-bootable, with two exceptions: the root partition (/) if you want to boot NetBSD directly, or the swap partition if you want to boot the installation miniroot directly.

  2. Changing the file system parameters of the partitions to NetBSD ones. This must be done from the partitioning section and ``Advanced options'' must be enabled.

To make the needed changes:

  1. Click the ``Adv. Options'' button
  2. Click the ``Change file system'' button
  3. Choose ``Custom File System''
  4. Turn off ``Automount'' if on.
  5. Set the dostype to one of these three choices:
    root partition  : 0x4e425207                                                   (NBR\007)
    swap partition  : 0x4e425301                                                   (NBS\001)
    other partitions: 0x4e425507                                                   (NBU\007)
    

    Here `other' refers to other partitions you will format for reading and writing under NetBSD (e.g., /usr)

    Make sure you press RETURN to enter this value as some versions of HDToolBox will forget your entry if you don't.

  6. Turn custom boot code off
  7. Set Reserved Blocks start and end to 0.
  8. Click Ok.

On the root (/) (and, for installation, swap) partition:

  1. Turn custom boot code on
  2. Set Reserved Blocks start and end to 0.
  3. Set Number of Custom Boot Blocks to 16.
  4. Set Automount This Partition on
  5. Click Ok.

    Mask and maxtransfer are not used with NetBSD.

Caveat:
The swap (for installation) and the root partition (if you plan to use the bootblocks) must be within the first 4 gigabytes of the disk! The reason for the former is that xstreamtodev uses trackdisk.device compatible I/O-calls, the reason for the latter is that the bootblock gets a 32bit partition offset from the operating system.

Once this is done NetBSD/amiga will be able to recognize your disks and which partitions it should use.

Transferring the miniroot file system
The NetBSD/amiga installation or upgrade now uses a miniroot file system which is installed on the partition used by NetBSD for swapping. This removes the requirement of using a floppy disk for the file system used by the installation or upgrade process. It also allows more utilities to be present on the file system than would be available when using an 880 KB floppy disk.

Once the hard disk has been prepared for NetBSD, the miniroot file system (miniroot.fs) is transferred to the swap partition configured during the hard disk prep (or the existing swap partition in the case of an upgrade). The xstreamtodev utility provided in the amiga/installation/misc directory can be used on AmigaDOS to transfer the file system for either a new installation or an upgrade. The file system can also be transferred on an existing NetBSD system for an update by using dd. This should only be done after booting NetBSD into single-user mode. It may also be possible to shutdown to single-user, providing that the single-user mode processes are not using the swap partition.

On AmigaDOS, run the command:


       xstreamtodev --input=miniroot.fs --rdb-name=<swap partition>

where <swap partition> is the name you gave to the NetBSD partition to be used for swapping. If xstreamtodev is unable to determine the SCSI driver device name or the unit number of the specified partition, you may also need to include the option


       --device=<driver.name>

and/or


       --unit=<SCSI unit number>

To transfer the miniroot using NetBSD, you should be booted up in single user mode on the current NetBSD system, or use the shutdown now command to shutdown to single-user mode. Then copy the miniroot using dd:


       dd if=miniroot.fs of=/dev/rsd0b

where /dev/rsd0b should be the device path of the swap partition your system is configured to use. Once the file is copied, reboot back to AmigaDOS to boot the upgrade kernel.

Caveat:
Once you have started installation, if you abort it and want to retry you must reinstall the miniroot.fs on the swap partition.

Installing the NetBSD System

Installing NetBSD is a relatively complex process, but, if you have this document in hand and are careful to read and remember the information which is presented to you by the install program, it shouldn't be too much trouble.

Before you begin, you must have already prepared your hard disk as detailed in the section on preparing your system for install.

The following is a walk-through of the steps necessary to get NetBSD installed on your hard disk. If you wish to stop the installation, you may press CONTROL-C at any prompt, but if you do, you'll have to begin again from scratch.

Transfer the miniroot file system onto the hard disk partition used by NetBSD for swapping, as described in the "Preparing your System for NetBSD Installation" section above.

Booting
NetBSD, with boot blocks installed

[This description is for V40 (OS 3.1) ROMs. For older ROMs, there might be small differences. Check your AmigaDOS documentation to learn about the exact procedure.] Using bootblocks may not work on some systems, and may require a mountable file system on others.

Reboot your machine, holding down both mouse buttons if you have a 2-button mouse, the outer mouse buttons if you have a 3-button mouse. On the DraCo, press the left mouse button instead, when the boot screen prompts you for it.

From the boot menu, select Boot Options. Select the swap partition with the miniroot, and then ok. Select Boot now. The machine will boot the bootblock, which will prompt your for a command line. You have a few seconds time to change the default. Entering an empty line will accept the default.

The bootblock uses command lines of the form:
file[ options]
where file is the kernel file name on the partition where the boot block is on, and [options] may contain the following:

If you have an AGA machine, and your monitor will handle the dblNTSC mode, you may include the -A option to enable the dblNTSC display mode.

If your machine has a fragmented physical memory space, as, e.g., DraCo machines, you should add the -n2 option to enable the use of all memory segments.

Once your kernel boots
You should see the screen clear and some information about your system as the kernel configures the hardware. Note which hard disk device(s) are configured (sd0, sd1, etc.) Then you will be prompted for a root device. At this time type sd0b, where sd0 is the device which contains the swap partition you created during the hard disk preparation. When prompted for a dump device, answer `none' for the install (normally, you would tell it one of the swap devices). When prompted for the root file system type, confirm `generic', which will auto-detect it.

If the system should hang after entering the root device, try again with

       netbsd -I ff -b

This disables synchronous transfer on all SCSI devices on the first bus.

The system should continue to boot. For now ignore ``WARNING'' messages about bad dates in clocks, and a warning about /etc/rc not existing. Eventually you will be be asked to enter the pathname of the shell, just press RETURN. After a short while, you will be asked to select the type of your keyboard. After you have entered a valid response here, the system asks you if you want to install or upgrade your system. Since you are reading the install section, `i' would be the proper response here...

The installer starts with a nice welcome messages. Read this message carefully, it also informs you of the risks involved in continuing! If you still want to go on, type `y'. The installer now continues by trying to figure out your disk configuration. When it is done, you will be prompted to select a root device from the list of disks it has found.

You should know at this point that the disks are not numbered according to their SCSI-ID! The NetBSD kernel numbers the SCSI drives (and other devices on the SCSI bus) sequentially as it finds them. The drive with the lowest SCSI-ID will be called sd0, the next one sd1, etc. Also, any ATAPI disk drives (e.g. ZIP) will be configured as ``SCSI'' drives, too, and will be configured before any `real' SCSI drives if connected to the Amiga internal port on A4000/A1200 (if any are present). Real IDE drives will be configured as wd0, wd1, etc.

The installer will offer you to look at the NetBSD disk label of the disks at this point. You should do this, to find out what partition letters the NetBSD kernel assigned to the partitions you created, and as a check of whether the disk number you are going to use is right.

you are now at the point of no return. If you confirm that you want to install NetBSD, your hard drive will be modified, and perhaps its contents scrambled at the whim of the install program. Type Control-C now if you don't want this.

At this time, you will need to tell the installer which partition will be associated with the different file systems. Normally, you'll want to add a partition for /usr, at least.

Caveat:
Do not use the rsdNc or sdNc partitions for anything! They are for access to the whole disk only and do not correspond to any Amiga partition!

The install program will now make the file systems you specified. There should be only one error per file system in this section of the installation. It will look like this:

newfs: ioctl (WDINFO): Invalid argument
newfs: /dev/rsd0a: can't rewrite disk label

If there are any others, restart from the beginning of the installation process. This error is ok as the Amiga does not write disklabels currently. You should expect this error whenever using newfs.

The install will now ask you want to configure any network information. It will ask for the machine's host name, domain name, and other network configuration information.

Since the network configuration might have lead to additional (NFS) file system entries, you get another chance to modify your fstab.

You are finally at the point where some real data will be put on your freshly made file systems. Select the device type you wish to install from and off you go....

Some notes:

Next you will be asked to specify the timezone. Just select the timezone you are in. The installer will make the correct setup on your root file system (/). After the timezone-link is installed, the installer will proceed by creating the device nodes on your root file system under /dev.

Be patient, this will take a while...

Next, the installer will copy your keymap settings to the new system. After this, it will copy the kernel from the installation miniroot to the newly installed / upgraded system. If the installed system already has a kernel, it will ask you for confirmation.

kern.tgz distribution set, this is an old kernel, and you should answer "y" to install a working (although restricted) INSTALL kernel.

If you did install the kern.tgz kernel, you normally should answer "n".

Finally, the installer asks you if you want to install the bootblock code on your root disk. This is a matter of personal choice and can also be done from a running NetBSD system. See the installboot(8) manual page about how to do this.

Once the installer is done, halt the system with the halt command (wait for halted to be displayed) and reboot. Then again boot NetBSD this time selecting the root partition (/) from the boot menu, and tell it to boot


       netbsd -s

You need to do your final tweaks now. First mount your file systems like so:


       mount -av

Your system is now complete, and it is up to you to configure the rest. You may want to start by looking at /etc/rc.conf.

Once you are done with the rest of configuration unmount your file systems and halt your system, then reboot:


       # cd /
       # umount -av
       # halt

Finally you can now boot your system and it will be completely functional:


       netbsd

When it boots off of the hard drive, you will have a complete NetBSD system! Congratulations! (You really deserve them!!!)

Post installation steps

Once you've got the operating system running, there are a few things you need to do in order to bring the system into a properly configured state. The most important steps are described below.

  1. Configuring /etc/rc.conf

    If you or the installation software haven't done any configuration of /etc/rc.conf (sysinst usually will), the system will drop you into single user mode on first reboot with the message

           /etc/rc.conf is not configured. Multiuser boot aborted.

    and with the root file system (/) mounted read-only. When the system asks you to choose a shell, simply press RETURN to get to a /bin/sh prompt. If you are asked for a terminal type, respond with vt220 (or whatever is appropriate for your terminal type) and press RETURN. You may need to type one of the following commands to get your delete key to work properly, depending on your keyboard:
           # stty erase '^h'
           # stty erase '^?'
    At this point, you need to configure at least one file in the /etc directory. You will need to mount your root file system read/write with:
           # /sbin/mount -u -w /
    Change to the /etc directory and take a look at the /etc/rc.conf file. Modify it to your tastes, making sure that you set rc_configured=YES so that your changes will be enabled and a multi-user boot can proceed. Default values for the various programs can be found in /etc/defaults/rc.conf, where some in-line documentation may be found. More complete documentation can be found in rc.conf(5).

    When you have finished editing /etc/rc.conf, type exit at the prompt to leave the single-user shell and continue with the multi-user boot.

    Other values that may need to be set in /etc/rc.conf for a networked environment are hostname and possibly defaultroute. You may also need to add an ifconfig_int for your <int> network interface, along the lines of


           ifconfig_le0="inet 192.0.2.123 netmask 255.255.255.0"

    or, if you have myname.my.dom in /etc/hosts:


           ifconfig_le0="inet myname.my.dom netmask 255.255.255.0"

    To enable proper hostname resolution, you will also want to add an /etc/resolv.conf file or (if you are feeling a little more adventurous) run named(8). See resolv.conf(5) or named(8) for more information. Instead of manually configuring network and naming service, DHCP can be used by setting dhclient=YES in /etc/rc.conf.

    Other files in /etc that may require modification or setting up include /etc/mailer.conf, /etc/nsswitch.conf, and /etc/wscons.conf.

  2. Logging in

    After reboot, you can log in as root at the login prompt. Unless you've set a password in sysinst, there is no initial password. You should create an account for yourself (see below) and protect it and the ``root'' account with good passwords. By default, root login from the network is disabled (even via ssh(1)). One way to become root over the network is to log in as a different user that belongs to group ``wheel'' (see group(5)) and use su(1) to become root.

  3. Adding accounts

    Use the useradd(8) command to add accounts to your system. Do not edit /etc/passwd directly! See vipw(8) and pwd_mkdb(8) if you want to edit the password database.

  4. The X Window System

    If you installed the X Window System, you may want to read the chapter about X in the NetBSD Guide: http://netbsd.org/docs/guide/en/chap-x.html

  5. Installing third party packages

    If you wish to install any of the software freely available for UNIX-like systems you are strongly advised to first check the NetBSD package system, pkgsrc. pkgsrc automatically handles any changes necessary to make the software run on NetBSD. This includes the retrieval and installation of any other packages on which the software may depend.

  6. Misc

Upgrading a previously-installed NetBSD System

The upgrade path to NetBSD5.1_RC3 documented here is by binary sets.

To do the upgrade, you must have the NetBSD kernel on AmigaDOS and you must transfer the miniroot file system miniroot.fs onto the swap partition of the NetBSD hard disk. You must also have at least the base binary distribution set available. Finally, you must have sufficient disk space available to install the new binaries. Since the old binaries are being overwritten in place, you only need space for the new binaries, which weren't previously on the system. This is typically not more than a few megabytes.

Since upgrading involves replacing the kernel and most of the system binaries, it has the potential to cause data loss. You are strongly advised to BACK UP ANY IMPORTANT DATA ON YOUR DISK, whether on the NetBSD partition or on another operating system's partition, before beginning the upgrade process.

To upgrade your system, begin by transferring the miniroot file system onto the hard disk partition used by NetBSD for swapping, as described in the "Preparing your System for NetBSD Installation" section above.

Now boot up NetBSD, with bootblocks installed

Note:
This description is for V40 (OS 3.1) ROMs. For older ROMs, there might be small differences. Check your AmigaDOS documentation to learn about the exact procedure. Booting using bootblocks doesn't work at all on some systems, and may require a mountable file system on others.

Reboot your machine, holding down both mouse buttons if you have a 2-button mouse, the outer mouse buttons if you have a 3-button mouse. On the DraCo, press the left mouse button instead, when the boot screen prompts you for it.

From the boot menu, select Boot Options. Select the swap partition with the miniroot, and then ok. Select Boot now. The machine will boot the bootblock, which will prompt you for a command line. You have a few seconds to change the default. Entering an empty line will accept the default.

The bootblock uses command lines of the form:
file[ options]
where file is the kernel file name on the partition where the boot block is on, and options may contain the same as described in the INSTALL section.

For installing, use        netbsd -b

If you machine has a split memory space, like, e.g., DraCo machines, use this instead:


       netbsd -bn2

Once your kernel boots
You should see the screen clear and some information about your system as the kernel configures the hardware. Note which hard disk device is configured that contains your root (/) and swap partitions. When prompted for the root device, type sd0b (replacing `0' with the disk number that NetBSD used for your root/swap device). When prompted for a dump device, answer `none' for the upgrade. (For a normal boot, you would tell it one of the swap devices). When prompted for the root file system type, confirm `generic', which will auto-detect it.

You will be presented with some information about the upgrade process and a warning message, and will be asked if you wish to proceed with the upgrade process. If you answer negatively, the upgrade process will stop, and your disk will not be modified. If you answer affirmatively, the upgrade process will begin, and your disk will be modified. You may press CONTROL-C to stop the upgrade process at any time. However, if you press it at an inopportune moment, your system may be left in an inconsistent (and possibly unusable) state.

You will now be greeted and reminded of the fact that this is a potentially dangerous procedure and that you should not upgrade the etc set.

When you decide to proceed, you will be prompted to enter your root disk. After you've done this, it will be checked automatically to make sure that the file system is in a sane state before making any modifications. After this is done, you will be asked if you want to configure your network.

You are now allowed to edit your fstab, but normally you don't have to. Note that the upgrade-kit uses its own copy of the fstab. Whatever you do here won't affect your actual fstab. After you are satisfied with your fstab, the upgrade-kit will check all file systems mentioned in it. When they're ok, they will be mounted.

You will now be asked if your sets are stored on a normally mounted file system. You should answer `y' to this question if you have the sets stored on a file system that was present in the fstab. The actions you should take for the set extraction are pretty logical (we think).

After you have extracted the sets, the upgrade kit will proceed with setting the timezone and installing the kernel and bootcode. This is all exactly the same as described in the installation section.

Your system has now been upgraded to NetBSD5.1_RC3.

After a new kernel has been copied to your hard disk, your machine is a complete NetBSD5.1_RC3 system. However, that doesn't mean that you're finished with the upgrade process. There are several things that you should do, or might have to do, to insure that the system works properly.

You will probably want to get the etc distribution, extract it, and compare its contents with those in your /etc directory. You will probably want to replace some of your system configuration files, or incorporate some of the changes in the new versions into yours.

You will want to delete old binaries that were part of the version of NetBSD that you upgraded from and have since been removed from the NetBSD distribution.

Compatibility Issues With Previous NetBSD Releases

Users upgrading from previous versions of NetBSD may wish to bear the following problems and compatibility issues in mind when upgrading to NetBSD 5.1_RC3.

If your port uses X.Org and you see messages from the X server indicating that no devices were found, you may need to run X -configure and update your existing xorg.conf to use the BusID line from the newly-generated config file.

Dual-head support for PC systems has become broken for many configurations with the update to xorg-server 1.6.x, which has removed the userland PCI configuration mechanism, and needs to rely upon the OS. We hope to correct this for future releases. Workaround: The only workaround is non-trivial and requires programming several PCI BAR registers as they previously were in NetBSD 5.0.

If you are updating to NetBSD 5.1_RC3 without the aid of sysinst or postinstall and your port uses X.Org, be sure to remove /usr/X11R7/lib/X11/xkb/symbols/pc before extracting the xbase set. In the version of X.Org shipped with 5.0, this was a directory, but in more recent X.Org versions it is a file.

On ports using X.Org, libpixman and libXfont had their major versions bumped. This can be a source of trouble if using binary packages built on 5.0.x.

pkg_install now depends on the pkgdb cache for automatic conflict detection. It is recommended to rebuild the cache with


       # pkg_admin rebuild

audit-packages.conf(5) has been superseded by pkg_install.conf(5). The default configuration is the same.

Support for pkg_view(1) has been retired.

The functionality of audit-packages(1) and download-vulnerability-list(1) has moved into pkg_admin(1). However, wrapper scripts that handle the common use cases are provided.

Issues affecting an upgrade from NetBSD 4.x releases

The pthread libraries from previous versions of NetBSD require that the sysctl(3) node kern.no_sa_support be set to 0. This affects the following environments:

The 5.0 kernel defaults to 0 for kern.no_sa_support, which covers the first case. However, please note that a full installation of 5.0 (either from scratch or through an upgrade) will set kern.no_sa_support to 1 during the boot process. This means that for the last two cases, you will have to manually set kern.no_sa_support to 0, using either the sysctl(8) command or through sysctl.conf(5).

Note that sysinst will automatically invoke

postinstall fix
and thus all issues that are fixed by postinstall by default (see below) will be handled.
Issues affecting an upgrade from NetBSD 3.x releases
See the section below on upgrading from NetBSD 4.x as well.

The following issues can generally be resolved by running postinstall with the etc set:

postinstall -s /path/to/etc.tgz check
postinstall -s /path/to/etc.tgz fix

Issues fixed by postinstall:

The following issues need to be resolved manually:

Issues affecting an upgrade from NetBSD 4.x releases

The following issues can generally be resolved by running postinstall with the etc set:

postinstall -s /path/to/etc.tgz check
postinstall -s /path/to/etc.tgz fix

Issues fixed by postinstall:

The following issues need to be resolved manually:

Using online NetBSD documentation

Documentation is available if you installed the manual distribution set. Traditionally, the ``man pages'' (documentation) are denoted by `name(section)'. Some examples of this are

The section numbers group the topics into several categories, but three are of primary interest: user commands are in section 1, file formats are in section 5, and administrative information is in section 8.

The man command is used to view the documentation on a topic, and is started by entering man [section] topic. The brackets [] around the section should not be entered, but rather indicate that the section is optional. If you don't ask for a particular section, the topic with the lowest numbered section name will be displayed. For instance, after logging in, enter


       # man passwd

to read the documentation for passwd(1). To view the documentation for passwd(5), enter


       # man 5 passwd

instead.

If you are unsure of what man page you are looking for, enter


       # apropos subject-word

where subject-word is your topic of interest; a list of possibly related man pages will be displayed.

Administrivia

If you've got something to say, do so! We'd like your input. There are various mailing lists available via the mailing list server at majordomo@NetBSD.org. To get help on using the mailing list server, send mail to that address with an empty body, and it will reply with instructions. See http://www.NetBSD.org/mailinglists/ for a web interface.

There are various mailing lists set up to deal with comments and questions about this release. Please send comments to: netbsd-comments@NetBSD.org.

To report bugs, use the send-pr(1) command shipped with NetBSD, and fill in as much information about the problem as you can. Good bug reports include lots of details.

Bugs also can be submitted and queried with the web interface at http://www.NetBSD.org/support/send-pr.html

There are also port-specific mailing lists, to discuss aspects of each port of NetBSD. Use majordomo to find their addresses, or visit http://www.NetBSD.org/mailinglists/

If you're interested in doing a serious amount of work on a specific port, you probably should contact the `owner' of that port (listed below).

If you'd like to help with this effort, and have an idea as to how you could be useful, send us mail or subscribe to: netbsd-users@NetBSD.org.

As a favor, please avoid mailing huge documents or files to these mailing lists. Instead, put the material you would have sent up for FTP or WWW somewhere, then mail the appropriate list about it, or, if you'd rather not do that, mail the list saying you'll send the data to those who want it.

Thanks go to

We are...

(in alphabetical order)


The NetBSD core group:
Alistair Crooksagc@NetBSD.org
Quentin Garniercube@NetBSD.org
Matt Thomasmatt@NetBSD.org
YAMAMOTO Takashiyamt@NetBSD.org
Christos Zoulaschristos@NetBSD.org

The portmasters (and their ports):
Erik Berlscyber@NetBSD.org cobalt
Manuel Bouyerbouyer@NetBSD.org xen
Simon Burgesimonb@NetBSD.org evbmips
Simon Burgesimonb@NetBSD.org pmax
Simon Burgesimonb@NetBSD.org sbmips
Julian Colemanjdc@NetBSD.org atari
Marcus Comstedtmarcus@NetBSD.org dreamcast
Andrew Doranad@NetBSD.org amd64
Andrew Doranad@NetBSD.org i386
Matthias Drochnerdrochner@NetBSD.org cesfic
Gavan Fantomgavan@NetBSD.org iyonix
Jaime A Fournierober@NetBSD.org zaurus
Matt Fredettefredette@NetBSD.org sun2
Ichiro FUKUHARAichiro@NetBSD.org hpcarm
Chris Gilbertchris@NetBSD.org cats
Ben Harrisbjh21@NetBSD.org acorn26
Ross Harveyross@NetBSD.org alpha
Nick Hudsonskrll@NetBSD.org hp700
Martin Husemannmartin@NetBSD.org sparc64
IWAMOTO Toshihirotoshii@NetBSD.org hpcarm
Darrin Jewelldbj@NetBSD.org next68k
Søren Jørvangsoren@NetBSD.org sgimips
Wayne Knowleswdk@NetBSD.org mipsco
Takayoshi Kochikochi@NetBSD.org ia64
Paul Kranenburgpk@NetBSD.org sparc
Michael Lorenzmacallan@NetBSD.org macppc
Anders Magnussonragge@NetBSD.org vax
Cherry G. Mathewcherry@NetBSD.org ia64
NISHIMURA Takeshinsmrtks@NetBSD.org x68k
Tohru Nishimuranisimura@NetBSD.org luna68k
Tohru Nishimuranisimura@NetBSD.org sandpoint
Andrey Petrovpetrov@NetBSD.org sparc64
Scott Reynoldsscottr@NetBSD.org mac68k
Tim Rightnourgarbled@NetBSD.org ofppc
Tim Rightnourgarbled@NetBSD.org prep
Tim Rightnourgarbled@NetBSD.org rs6000
Noriyuki Sodasoda@NetBSD.org arc
Ignatios Souvatzisis@NetBSD.org amiga
Jonathan Stonejonathan@NetBSD.org pmax
Shin Takemuratakemura@NetBSD.org hpcmips
Matt Thomasmatt@NetBSD.org alpha
Matt Thomasmatt@NetBSD.org netwinder
Jason Thorpethorpej@NetBSD.org algor
Jason Thorpethorpej@NetBSD.org evbarm
Jason Thorpethorpej@NetBSD.org shark
Izumi Tsutsuitsutsui@NetBSD.org ews4800mips
Izumi Tsutsuitsutsui@NetBSD.org hp300
Izumi Tsutsuitsutsui@NetBSD.org news68k
Valeriy E. Ushakovuwe@NetBSD.org landisk
Nathan Williamsnathanw@NetBSD.org sun3
Steve Woodfordscw@NetBSD.org evbppc
Steve Woodfordscw@NetBSD.org mvme68k
Steve Woodfordscw@NetBSD.org mvmeppc
Reinoud Zandijkreinoud@NetBSD.org acorn32

The NetBSD 5.1_RC3 Release Engineering team:
Manuel Bouyerbouyer@NetBSD.org
David Brownleeabs@NetBSD.org
James Chaconjmc@NetBSD.org
Julian Colemanjdc@NetBSD.org
Håvard Eidneshe@NetBSD.org
Liam J. Foyliamjfoy@NetBSD.org
John Heasleyheas@NetBSD.org
Geert Hendrickxghen@NetBSD.org
Soren Jacobsensnj@NetBSD.org
Phil Nelsonphil@NetBSD.org
Jeff Rizzoriz@NetBSD.org

NetBSD Developers:
Nathan Ahlstromnra@NetBSD.org
Steve Allenwormey@NetBSD.org
Jukka Andbergjandberg@NetBSD.org
Julian Assangeproff@NetBSD.org
Lennart Augustssonaugustss@NetBSD.org
Christoph Badurabad@NetBSD.org
Bang Jun-Youngjunyoung@NetBSD.org
Dieter Barondillo@NetBSD.org
Robert V. Baronrvb@NetBSD.org
Alan Barrettapb@NetBSD.org
Grant Beattiegrant@NetBSD.org
Jason Beeganjtb@NetBSD.org
Erik Berlscyber@NetBSD.org
Hiroyuki Besshobsh@NetBSD.org
John Birrelljb@NetBSD.org
Mason Loring Blissmason@NetBSD.org
Charles Blundellcb@NetBSD.org
Rafal Bonirafal@NetBSD.org
Stephen Borrillsborrill@NetBSD.org
Sean Boudreauseanb@NetBSD.org
Manuel Bouyerbouyer@NetBSD.org
John Brezakbrezak@NetBSD.org
Allen Briggsbriggs@NetBSD.org
Mark Brinicombemark@NetBSD.org
Aaron Brownabrown@NetBSD.org
Andrew Brownatatat@NetBSD.org
David Brownleeabs@NetBSD.org
Frederick Bruckmanfredb@NetBSD.org
Jon Bullerjonb@NetBSD.org
Simon Burgesimonb@NetBSD.org
Robert Byrnesbyrnes@NetBSD.org
Pavel Cahynapavel@NetBSD.org
D'Arcy J.M. Caindarcy@NetBSD.org
Daniel Carosonedan@NetBSD.org
Dave Carrelcarrel@NetBSD.org
James Chaconjmc@NetBSD.org
Mihai Chelarukefren@NetBSD.org
Bill Coldwellbillc@NetBSD.org
Julian Colemanjdc@NetBSD.org
Ben Collverben@NetBSD.org
Marcus Comstedtmarcus@NetBSD.org
Jeremy Cooperjeremy@NetBSD.org
Chuck Cranorchuck@NetBSD.org
Alistair Crooksagc@NetBSD.org
Aidan Cullyaidan@NetBSD.org
Garrett D'Amoregdamore@NetBSD.org
Johan Danielssonjoda@NetBSD.org
John Darrowjdarrow@NetBSD.org
Jed Davisjld@NetBSD.org
Matt DeBergalisdeberg@NetBSD.org
Arnaud Degrootedegroote@NetBSD.org
Rob Dekerdeker@NetBSD.org
Chris G. Demetrioucgd@NetBSD.org
Tracy Di Marco Whitegendalia@NetBSD.org
Jaromír Dolecekjdolecek@NetBSD.org
Andy Doranad@NetBSD.org
Roland Dowdeswellelric@NetBSD.org
Emmanuel Dreyfusmanu@NetBSD.org
Matthias Drochnerdrochner@NetBSD.org
Jun Ebiharajun@NetBSD.org
Håvard Eidneshe@NetBSD.org
Jaime A Fournierober@NetBSD.org
Stoned Elipotseb@NetBSD.org
Michael van Elstmlelstv@NetBSD.org
Enami Tsugutomoenami@NetBSD.org
Bernd Ernestiveego@NetBSD.org
Erik Fairfair@NetBSD.org
Gavan Fantomgavan@NetBSD.org
Hauke Fathhauke@NetBSD.org
Hubert Feyrerhubertf@NetBSD.org
Jason R. Finkjrf@NetBSD.org
Matt J. Flemingmjf@NetBSD.org
Marty Foutsmarty@NetBSD.org
Liam J. Foyliamjfoy@NetBSD.org
Matt Fredettefredette@NetBSD.org
Thorsten Frueauffrueauf@NetBSD.org
Castor Fucastor@NetBSD.org
Ichiro Fukuharaichiro@NetBSD.org
Quentin Garniercube@NetBSD.org
Thomas Gernerthomas@NetBSD.org
Simon J. Gerratysjg@NetBSD.org
Justin Gibbsgibbs@NetBSD.org
Chris Gilbertchris@NetBSD.org
Eric Gillespieepg@NetBSD.org
Brian Ginsbachginsbach@NetBSD.org
Paul Goyettepgoyette@NetBSD.org
Michael Graffexplorer@NetBSD.org
Brian C. Graysonbgrayson@NetBSD.org
Matthew Greenmrg@NetBSD.org
Andreas Gustafssongson@NetBSD.org
Ulrich Habelrhaen@NetBSD.org
Jun-ichiro itojun Haginoitojun@NetBSD.org
HAMAJIMA Katsuomihamajima@NetBSD.org
Adam Hamsikhaad@NetBSD.org
Juergen Hannken-Illjeshannken@NetBSD.org
Charles M. Hannummycroft@NetBSD.org
Ben Harrisbjh21@NetBSD.org
Ross Harveyross@NetBSD.org
Eric Haszlakiewiczerh@NetBSD.org
John Hawkinsonjhawk@NetBSD.org
HAYAKAWA Koichihaya@NetBSD.org
John Heasleyheas@NetBSD.org
Geert Hendrickxghen@NetBSD.org
René Hexelrh@NetBSD.org
Iain Hibbertplunky@NetBSD.org
Kouichirou Hiratsukahira@NetBSD.org
Michael L. Hitchmhitch@NetBSD.org
Ádám Hókaahoka@NetBSD.org
Jachym Holecekfreza@NetBSD.org
David A. Hollanddholland@NetBSD.org
Christian E. Hoppschopps@NetBSD.org
Ken Hornsteinkenh@NetBSD.org
Marc Horowitzmarc@NetBSD.org
Eduardo Horvatheeh@NetBSD.org
Nick Hudsonskrll@NetBSD.org
Shell Hungshell@NetBSD.org
Martin Husemannmartin@NetBSD.org
Dean Huxleydean@NetBSD.org
Love Hörnquist Åstrandlha@NetBSD.org
Roland Illigrillig@NetBSD.org
Bernardo Innocentibernie@NetBSD.org
Tetsuya Isakiisaki@NetBSD.org
ITOH Yasufumiitohy@NetBSD.org
IWAMOTO Toshihirotoshii@NetBSD.org
Matthew Jacobmjacob@NetBSD.org
Soren Jacobsensnj@NetBSD.org
Lonhyn T. Jasinskyjlonhyn@NetBSD.org
Darrin Jewelldbj@NetBSD.org
Nicolas Jolynjoly@NetBSD.org
Chris Jonescjones@NetBSD.org
Søren Jørvangsoren@NetBSD.org
Takahiro Kambetaca@NetBSD.org
Masanori Kanaokakanaoka@NetBSD.org
Antti Kanteepooka@NetBSD.org
Frank Kardelkardel@NetBSD.org
Mattias Karlssonkeihan@NetBSD.org
KAWAMOTO Yosihisakawamoto@NetBSD.org
Mario Kempermagick@NetBSD.org
Min Sik Kimminskim@NetBSD.org
Thomas Klausnerwiz@NetBSD.org
Klaus Kleinkleink@NetBSD.org
John Klosjklos@NetBSD.org
Wayne Knowleswdk@NetBSD.org
Takayoshi Kochikochi@NetBSD.org
John Kohljtk@NetBSD.org
Daniel de Kokdaniel@NetBSD.org
Jonathan A. Kollaschjakllsch@NetBSD.org
Paul Kranenburgpk@NetBSD.org
Lubomir Kundraklkundrak@NetBSD.org
Jochen Kunzjkunz@NetBSD.org
Martti Kuparinenmartti@NetBSD.org
Kentaro A. Kurahonekurahone@NetBSD.org
Arnaud Lacombealc@NetBSD.org
Kevin Laheykml@NetBSD.org
David Laightdsl@NetBSD.org
Johnny C. Lamjlam@NetBSD.org
Martin J. Laubachmjl@NetBSD.org
Greg Leheygrog@NetBSD.org
Ted Lemonmellon@NetBSD.org
Christian Limpachcl@NetBSD.org
Frank van der Lindenfvdl@NetBSD.org
Joel Lindholmjoel@NetBSD.org
Tonnerre Lombardtonnerre@NetBSD.org
Mike Longmikel@NetBSD.org
Michael Lorenzmacallan@NetBSD.org
Warner Loshimp@NetBSD.org
Tomasz Luchowskizuntum@NetBSD.org
Federico Lupifederico@NetBSD.org
Brett Lymnblymn@NetBSD.org
Paul Mackerraspaulus@NetBSD.org
MAEKAWA Masahidegehenna@NetBSD.org
Anders Magnussonragge@NetBSD.org
Cherry G. Mathewcherry@NetBSD.org
David Maxwelldavid@NetBSD.org
Gregory McGarrygmcgarry@NetBSD.org
Dan McMahilldmcmahill@NetBSD.org
Jared D. McNeilljmcneill@NetBSD.org
Neil J. McRaeneil@NetBSD.org
Julio M. Merino Vidaljmmv@NetBSD.org
Perry Metzgerperry@NetBSD.org
Luke Mewburnlukem@NetBSD.org
Jean-Yves Migeonjym@NetBSD.org
Brook Milliganbrook@NetBSD.org
Minoura Makotominoura@NetBSD.org
Simas Mockeviciussymka@NetBSD.org
der Mousemouse@NetBSD.org
Joseph Myersjsm@NetBSD.org
Ken Nakatakenn@NetBSD.org
Takeshi Nakayamanakayama@NetBSD.org
Phil Nelsonphil@NetBSD.org
John Nemethjnemeth@NetBSD.org
Bob Nestorrnestor@NetBSD.org
NISHIMURA Takeshinsmrtks@NetBSD.org
Tohru Nishimuranisimura@NetBSD.org
NONAKA Kimihirononaka@NetBSD.org
Takehiko NOZAKItnozaki@NetBSD.org
Tobias Nygrentnn@NetBSD.org
OBATA Akioobache@NetBSD.org
Jesse Offjoff@NetBSD.org
Tatoku Ogaitotacha@NetBSD.org
OKANO Takayoshikano@NetBSD.org
Masaru Okioki@NetBSD.org
Atsushi Onoeonoe@NetBSD.org
Greg Osteroster@NetBSD.org
Rui Paulorpaulo@NetBSD.org
Jonathan Perkinsketch@NetBSD.org
Andrey Petrovpetrov@NetBSD.org
Herb Peyerlhpeyerl@NetBSD.org
Matthias Pfallermatthias@NetBSD.org
Chris Pinnockcjep@NetBSD.org
Adrian Portelliadrianp@NetBSD.org
Peter Postmapeter@NetBSD.org
Dante Profetadante@NetBSD.org
Chris Provenzanoproven@NetBSD.org
Niels Provosprovos@NetBSD.org
Mindaugas Rasiukeviciusrmind@NetBSD.org
Michael Rauchmrauch@NetBSD.org
Marc Rechtrecht@NetBSD.org
Darren Reeddarrenr@NetBSD.org
Jeremy C. Reedreed@NetBSD.org
Antoine Reillestonio@NetBSD.org
Tyler R. Retzlaffrtr@NetBSD.org
Scott Reynoldsscottr@NetBSD.org
Michael Richardsonmcr@NetBSD.org
Tim Rightnourgarbled@NetBSD.org
Alan Ritterrittera@NetBSD.org
Jeff Rizzoriz@NetBSD.org
Hans Rosenfeldhans@NetBSD.org
Gordon Rossgwr@NetBSD.org
Steve Rumblerumble@NetBSD.org
Ilpo Ruotsalainenlonewolf@NetBSD.org
Heiko W. Rupphwr@NetBSD.org
Blair J. Sadewitzbjs@NetBSD.org
David Saintydsainty@NetBSD.org
SAITOH Masanobumsaitoh@NetBSD.org
Kazuki Sakamotosakamoto@NetBSD.org
Curt Sampsoncjs@NetBSD.org
Wilfredo Sanchezwsanchez@NetBSD.org
Ty Sarnatsarna@NetBSD.org
SATO Kazumisato@NetBSD.org
Jan Schaumannjschauma@NetBSD.org
Matthias Schelertron@NetBSD.org
Silke Schelersilke@NetBSD.org
Karl Schilke (rAT)rat@NetBSD.org
Amitai Schlairschmonz@NetBSD.org
Konrad Schroderperseant@NetBSD.org
Georg Schwarzschwarz@NetBSD.org
Lubomir Sedlaciksalo@NetBSD.org
Christopher SEKIYAsekiya@NetBSD.org
Reed Shadgettdent@NetBSD.org
John Shannonshannonjr@NetBSD.org
Tim Shepardshep@NetBSD.org
Takeshi Shibagakishiba@NetBSD.org
Naoto Shimazakiigy@NetBSD.org
Takao Shinoharashin@NetBSD.org
Takuya SHIOZAKItshiozak@NetBSD.org
Daniel Siegerdsieger@NetBSD.org
Chuck Silverschs@NetBSD.org
Thor Lancelot Simontls@NetBSD.org
Jeff Smithjeffs@NetBSD.org
Noriyuki Sodasoda@NetBSD.org
Wolfgang Solfrankws@NetBSD.org
SOMEYA Yoshihikosomeya@NetBSD.org
Bill Sommerfeldsommerfeld@NetBSD.org
Jörg Sonnenbergerjoerg@NetBSD.org
Ignatios Souvatzisis@NetBSD.org
T K Spindlerdogcow@NetBSD.org
Bill Squiergroo@NetBSD.org
Jonathan Stonejonathan@NetBSD.org
Bill Studenmundwrstuden@NetBSD.org
Kevin Sullivansullivan@NetBSD.org
SUNAGAWA Keikikei@NetBSD.org
Kimmo Suominenkim@NetBSD.org
Robert Swindellsrjs@NetBSD.org
Shin Takemuratakemura@NetBSD.org
TAMURA Kentkent@NetBSD.org
Shin'ichiro TAYAtaya@NetBSD.org
Ian Lance Taylorian@NetBSD.org
Matt Thomasmatt@NetBSD.org
Jason Thorpethorpej@NetBSD.org
Christoph Toshoktoshok@NetBSD.org
Greg Troxelgdt@NetBSD.org
Tsubai Masanaritsubai@NetBSD.org
Izumi Tsutsuitsutsui@NetBSD.org
UCHIYAMA Yasushiuch@NetBSD.org
Masao Uebayashiuebayasi@NetBSD.org
Shuichiro URATAur@NetBSD.org
Valeriy E. Ushakovuwe@NetBSD.org
Todd Vierlingtv@NetBSD.org
Aymeric Vincentaymeric@NetBSD.org
Paul Vixievixie@NetBSD.org
Mike M. Volokhovmishka@NetBSD.org
Krister Walfridssonkristerw@NetBSD.org
Lex Wennmacherwennmach@NetBSD.org
Leo Weppelmanleo@NetBSD.org
Assar Westerlundassar@NetBSD.org
Todd Whiteseltoddpw@NetBSD.org
Frank Willephx@NetBSD.org
Nathan Williamsnathanw@NetBSD.org
Rob Windsorwindsor@NetBSD.org
Dan Winshipdanw@NetBSD.org
Jim Wisejwise@NetBSD.org
Michael Wolfsonmbw@NetBSD.org
Colin Woodender@NetBSD.org
Steve Woodfordscw@NetBSD.org
YAMAMOTO Takashiyamt@NetBSD.org
Yuji Yamanoyyamano@NetBSD.org
David Youngdyoung@NetBSD.org
Reinoud Zandijkreinoud@NetBSD.org
S.P.Zeidlerspz@NetBSD.org
Maria Zevenhovenmaria7@NetBSD.org
Christos Zoulaschristos@NetBSD.org

Other contributors:
Dave Burgessburgess@cynjut.infonet.net
Brian R. Gaekebrg@dgate.org
Brad Granthamgrantham@tenon.com
Lawrence Kestelootkesteloo@cs.unc.edu
Waldi Ravenswaldi@moacs.indiv.nl.net

All product names mentioned herein are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners.

The following notices are required to satisfy the license terms of the software that we have mentioned in this document:

NetBSD is a registered trademark of The NetBSD Foundation, Inc.

This product includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by the NetBSD Foundation.
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This product contains software developed by Ignatios Souvatzis for the NetBSD project.
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This product includes software developed by Tohru Nishimura. for the NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by TooLs GmbH.
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This product includes software developed by the PocketBSD project and its contributors.
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This product includes software developed by the SMCC Technology Development Group at Sun Microsystems, Inc.
This product includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors, as well as the Trustees of Columbia University.
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This product includes software developed by the University of Vermont and State Agricultural College and Garrett A. Wollman.
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This product includes software developed for the FreeBSD project
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This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Matthias Drochner.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Michael L. Hitch.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Perry E. Metzger.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Scott Bartram and Frank van der Linden
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Allegro Networks, Inc., and Wasabi Systems, Inc.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Genetec Corporation.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Jonathan Stone.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Piermont Information Systems Inc.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by SUNET, Swedish University Computer Network.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Shigeyuki Fukushima.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Wasabi Systems, Inc.
This product includes software developed under OpenBSD by Per Fogelstrom Opsycon AB for RTMX Inc, North Carolina, USA.
This product includes software developed under OpenBSD by Per Fogelstrom.
This software is a component of "386BSD" developed by William F. Jolitz, TeleMuse.
This software was developed by Holger Veit and Brian Moore for use with "386BSD" and similar operating systems. "Similar operating systems" includes mainly non-profit oriented systems for research and education, including but not restricted to "NetBSD", "FreeBSD", "Mach" (by CMU).
This software includes software developed by the Computer Systems Laboratory at the University of Utah.
This product includes software developed by Computing Services at Carnegie Mellon University (http://www.cmu.edu/computing/).
This product includes software developed by Marshall M. Midden.
This product includes software developed or owned by Caldera International, Inc.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and The Open Group, have given us permission to reprint portions of their documentation.

In the following statement, the phrase ``this text'' refers to portions of the system documentation.

Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form in NetBSD, from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2004 Edition, Standard for Information Technology -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2004 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. In the event of any discrepancy between these versions and the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document.

The original Standard can be obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html.

This notice shall appear on any product containing this material

This product includes software developed by Tobias Abt.
This product includes software developed by Klaus Burkert.
This product includes software developed by Michael van Elst.
This product includes software developed by Bernd Ernesti.
This product includes software developed by Markus Illenseer.
This product includes software developed by Mika Kortelainen.
This product includes software developed by Jukka Marin.
This product includes software developed by Kari Mettinen.
This product includes software developed by Brad Pepers.
This product includes software developed by Ignatios Souvatzis.
This product includes software developed by Michael Teske.
This product includes software developed by Lutz Vieweg.
This product includes software developed by Daniel Widenfalk.

The End